Presentation on theme: "Collective properties of even- even nuclei Vibrators and rotors With three Appendices."— Presentation transcript:
Collective properties of even- even nuclei Vibrators and rotors With three Appendices
What happens with both valence neutrons and protons? Case of few valence nucleons: Lowering of energies, development of multiplets. R 4/2 ~2 Vibrational modes, 1- and multi-phonon 2-particle spectra Intermediate
Lots of valence nucleons of both types R 4/2 ~3.33
B(E2; 2 + 0 + )
Broad perspective on structural evolution: R 4/2 Note the characteristic, repeated patterns
Development of collective behavior in nuclei Results primarily from correlations among valence nucleons. Instead of pure “shell model” configurations, the wave functions are mixed – linear combinations of many components. Leads to a lowering of the collective states and to enhanced transition rates as characteristic signatures. How does this happen? Consider mixing of states.
A illustrative special case of fundamental importance T Lowering of one state. Note that the components of its wave function are all equal and in phase Consequences of this: Lower energies for collective states, and enhanced transition rates. Lets look at the latter in a simple model.
Even-even Deformed Nuclei Rotations and vibrations
Rotational states Vibrational excitations Rotational states built on(superposed on) vibrational modes Ground or equilibirum state
Systematics and collectivity of the lowest vibrational modes in deformed nuclei
E2 transitions in deformed nuclei Intraband --- STRONG, typ. ~ 200 W.u. in heavy nuclei Interband --- Collective but much weaker, typ W.u. Which bands are connected? Alaga Rules for Branching ratios
Experimental B(E2) values in deformed nuclei
How to fix the model? Note: the Alaga rules assume that each band is pure – ground or gamma, in character. What about if they MIX ?? Bandmixing formalism
Mixing of gamma and ground state bands
Axially Asymmetric Nuclei Two types: “gamma” soft (or “unstable”), and rigid
First: Gamma soft E ~ ( + 3 ) ~ J max ( J max + 6 ) Note staggering in gamma band energies
E ~ J ( J + 6 ) E ~ J ~ J ( J + ) E ~ J ( J + 1 ) Overview of yrast energies
“Gamma” rigid or Davydov model Note opposite staggering in gamma band energies
Use staggering in gamma band energies as signature for the kind of axial asymmetry
Appendix A on Intruder States Another form of collective mode that sometimes appears in the low lying spectrum or can even become the ground state equilibrium cofiguration
The basic idea behind Intruder States: a 2- particle - 2-hole excitation that costs energy but gains it back by added collectivity which increases with increasing valence nucleon number.
Burcu Cakirli et al. Beta decay exp. + IBA calcs.
Appendix B on development of collectivity and lowering of collective energies by configuration mixing
Appendix C on energies and transition rates of 3- phonon states in terms of 2- phonon state anharmonicities