Presentation on theme: "MA ( Dev) Semester I Azim Premji University"— Presentation transcript:
1 MA ( Dev) Semester I Azim Premji University WaterMA ( Dev) Semester I Azim Premji UniversityP.S.Narayan and Purnendu S KavooriThe below and following notes on the template slides are to guide you only. In your final presentation, you may delete these notes and add relevant notes if any.Title slide:Title – should not exceed beyond 3 lines, font size 30-34, Arial Bold(Font size for the title of the PPT can vary between 30-34, Arial, Bold depending on the amount of text, however should not be smaller than 30 font size)Name should not exceed beyond 1 line, Designation; font size to remain at 16, Arial normalPlease keep the title slide simple, just the logo, title and name and designation to appear. No other graphic elements or any design, photograph, image can be added to this slide, alignment to remain the same
2 The many dimensions of water The Science: Hydrologic cycleCulture: Water as a intimate part of the humannarrativeTechnology: Engineering water for anthropogenicuses : Dams, Irrigation, Water treatment..Socio-economics: Measuring and Assessing WaterScarcity, Costs, PricingThe Politics: Equity of access, Entitlement andrights, Governance, InstitutionsAgenda slide:Heading – Agenda - Font size 30, Arial BoldPlease restrict this slide with just 5 agenda points. If you have more than 5 points on the agenda slide please add another slide. If you have only 3 then you can use just one slide and delete the other 2 points.5
3 Carbon, Nitrogen and Water The anthropogenic impacts of biogeochemical cycles stem from certain fundamental drivers – Energy Production in the case of Carbon and Food Production in the case of NitrogenWhat about Water ? Human use of water touches almost all aspects of our socio-economic infrastructureFor growing food and other cropsFor energy production : Washing coal, Running steam turbines, HydropowerFor domestic use : Cooking, Drinking and HygieneWidespread use in industryWater is not just another biophysical resource though…..it is part of people’s lives and cultures in an intimate manner that C and N are not. We can touch, feel, see and taste it. In its fluid and frozen forms, it is part of our living landscapesThe hydrologic cycle is closely linked with climate change and other cycles in nature
4 The anthropogenic impact on water The Living Planet Index has declined the most for freshwater habitat over the period – by 50% as compared to 30% each for terrestrial and marine biomesFreshwater withdrawals increased eightfold over the 20th century – whereas the population just quadrupledHumans appropriate nearly half of the global runoffs ( or Net precipitation on land)Pollution and Eutrophication of many freshwater systemsWashing of coal before being sold results in severe toxification of water systems including heavy metals like mercury, arsenic and lead
5 The anthropogenic impact on water….(cont’d) Large irrigation projects have ensured that most of the great rivers do not reach the sea during the dry seasonMore than large dams ( > 60 ft high) across the world and many more that number of small dams. TheseRegulate the flow of more than 60% of the world’s riversRetain more than cubic KM of water, more than five times the volume of all the world’s riversEighty million people have had to be forcibly relocatedRepresent a 700% increase in the stock of rivers in the last six decadesHave resulted in a massive redistribution of weight with accompanying changes in the earth’s magnetic field and gravity patternsResult in outbreaks of infectious diseases like schistosomiasisLoss of biodiversity by preventing the natural flow of nutrients
6 The fundamentals of the Water Cycle Section breaker slide:Used for a section heading. You may add a sub heading not exceeding one line also hereSection heading – Arial, bold, 34 font size, should not exceed beyond 1 lineSub Head – Arial, normal, 20 font size, should not exceed beyond 1 line
11 One Estimate of Global Water Distribution (Numbers are rounded) Water sourceWater volume, in cubic milesWater volume, in cubic kilometersPercent of freshwaterPercent of total waterOceans, Seas, & Bays321,000,0001,338,000,000--96.5Ice caps, Glaciers, & Permanent Snow5,773,00024,064,00068.61.74Groundwater5,614,00023,400,0001.7 Fresh2,526,00010,530,00030.1 0.76 Saline3,088,00012,870,000 0.93Soil Moisture3,95916,5000.050.001Ground Ice & Permafrost71,970300,0000.860.022Lakes42,320176,4000.01321,83091,0000.260.00720,49085,400Atmosphere3,09512,9000.04Swamp Water2,75211,4700.030.0008Rivers5092,1200.0060.0002Biological Water2691,1200.0030.0001Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter "World fresh water resources" in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources (Oxford University Press, New York).
12 Only around 0.003% water is available for human use ( around cubic KM – realistic availability of only KM3)
13 Blue and Green WaterBlue water is that which is available from runoffs in streams and rivers and from recharge to aquifers in the ground this constitutes about 40% of the rainfallGreen water refers to the balance 60% of the rainfall that infiltrates the soil, becomes soil moisture and evapotranspires without having entered into rivers or groundwaterIrrigation draws from the ‘Blue Water’ to make up for deficiencies in Green Water for agriculture
15 The unique characteristics of water Cyclical but Unpredictable FluidOften InvisibleProblem in Excess & ScarcityNo substitutabilitySolventCyclical but Unpredictable
16 Water and its interfaces with other planetary parameters Climate Change(i) Decreased C sequestration due to loss of green water (ii) Decline in moisture feedback of vapor flows affecting climate regn (iii) Positive feedback loop because of higher water holding capacity at higher tempsInterference with N and P flows(i) Eutrophication because of overloaded N nutrients (ii) Acid rain due to increased precipitation of atmospheric N compoundsOcean Acidification(i) Increased CO2 absorption has severe effects on marine lifeBiodiversity Loss(i) Collapse of biological sub-systems due to regional drying including that of riverine habitats and lake systems (Aral Sea) (ii) Increase of Anoxic events leading to local biodiversity lossLand System Change(i) Land degradation leading to soil moisture loss affecting biomass production (ii) Increased water runoffs and loss of water integrity (iii) Changes in green water patterns – higher evaporation, lesser transpiration (iv) Increased salinizationChemical Pollution(i) Sulfate, Heavy Metal and other toxic pollution reduce fresh water availability for human use (ii) Impact on coastal ecosystems
17 The science and politics of water scarcity Section breaker slide:Used for a section heading. You may add a sub heading not exceeding one line also hereSection heading – Arial, bold, 34 font size, should not exceed beyond 1 lineSub Head – Arial, normal, 20 font size, should not exceed beyond 1 line
20 The multiple dimensions of water scarcity Water AvailabilityToo much or too little ?Temporal or spatial scalePhysical vs Economic ScarcityDomestic / Food / Industry / EnvironmentIs it polluted or unfit for use ?
21 The different dimensions of water scarcity* Countries that will not be able to meet their demand by 2025 even after accounting for future adaptive capacityPhysical Water ScarcityCountries that have sufficient water resources but would have to make significant investments in making this water availableEconomic Water ScarcityEcological Water ScarcityWhere water is not available adequately for the provisioning of ecological services – forests, wetlands, freshwater systems* As defined by IWMI
22 The different measures of water scarcity The metricsDisadvantagesThe Falkenmark indicatorMinimum of 1700 m3 of renewablefresh water PCPAWater stress at < 1700 m3Water scarcity at < 1000 m3Abs water scarcity at < 500 m3Hides important scarcity at smaller scalesDoes not reflect variations in demand due to climate, lifestyles, adaptive capability etcWater Resources Vulnerability IndexAnnual water withdrawals from rivers, streams and groundwater aquifers of20-40% Water Scarcity>40% Severe water scarcityDoes not consider how much water is available for human use orHow much is consumptively used or lost through evapotranspiration orHow much is available through return flowsWater Poverty IndexAccess to waterWater quantity, quality ad variabilityWater use for domestic, food and productive purposes- Adaptive capacity for water managementAvailability for ecological integrity- Complicated and not easy to understand intuitively
23 Projected global water scarcity in 2030 (Based on Falkenmark indicator)
30 The questions on water scarcity Is Water physically scarce ( Supply problem) or is it available but not used and allocated well i.e. poor governance, inadequate economic access?What is the scarcity for – for domestic purposes, for food production, for industrial use, for the environment ?Is water scarcity a local, national or global issue ?Average measures of water availability hide a number of realities ; A national or regional aggregate may be of little use if local contexts are different and varyingIf water is available for anthropogenic use but not for the environment, what does it imply for long term stability of ecosystems ?
31 Should domestic water availability be an issue at all ?
33 Is water scarcity therefore real or constructed Is water scarcity therefore real or constructed ? – Lyla Mehta’s case study of KutchWater scarcity projected as absolute and monolithic ; in reality, its dimensions are many –ecological, socio-political and temporal.Water as a resource does not get lost – it is always present in the hydrologic cycle ; But its availability for human use is spatio-temporally changedTremendous inequity in distributional access – 10 ltrs per day in certain regions Vs 700 Lts PD in N.AmericaMis-engineered and Mis-governed : Drying up of Aral Sea, Broken hand pumps, Pipeline lossesThe Kutch storyNo decrease in average rainfall between the two 30 periods – andAppropriation of scarce water by the more powerful affecting equitable accessSingular fixation with the silver bullet of an unrealistic supply side solution – water transported over a long distance from a large damNo water harvesting being done….all runoffs
34 Was the water scarcity in Kutch real or constructed ?
35 Some definitive conclusions Water is physically scarce in Central and West Asia and N.Africa with projected availabilites of less than 1000 m3 per capita per annum ( PCPA) ; however, this scarcity is principally for food production and not for domestic use ( 20 m3 per annum)Upto 70% of the world’s population will be affected by water scarcity over the next few decadesWhen it comes to water provisioning for the environment, even water-abundant geographies in the developed world become water scarce ; without including environmental needs, there is no water scarcity in much of the developed world ( N.America, Japan, Europe, Australia)Latin America does not seem to have physical water scarcity ; yet, millions do not have access to adequate water, indicating economic scarcity rather than physicalDemand side management – e.g. improving water efficiency, shift from large infrastructure to decentralized micro irrigation etc – will be more effective than the futile effort in increasing supply
36 The social costs of water scarcity 1.2 billion people across the world lack access to safe and affordable water for domestic use Likely to be physically available but economically unavailableAbout 900 million people in rural areas – with an income of less than a dollar a day – do not have access to water for their livelihoods Likely to include both, physical and economic unavailability2.18 million deaths per year due to water related diseases of whom 75% are children less than 5 years oldGlobal burden of disease measured as 82 million disability adjusted life years
37 The exacerbating biophysical factors Deforestation leading to increased surface runoffs and evaporation without reverse precipitation i.e. decrease in groundwater stockIncrease in global warming induced temperatures leading to increased evaporation losses from surface waters without reverse precipitationAccelerated loss of soil moisture with consequences for food yieldsThe reverse effect of the water cycle on climate change : changes in precipitation and drought patterns
38 The exacerbating sociopolitical factors Fixation with Supply Management, driven by Technology and Engineering; Vs Local, Decentralized ‘Demand’ approaches that evolve solutions aligned with the local contextPoor water literacy even among the educated – no idea or sense of aquifer based groundwater management / water-sensible cropping patterns / micro-irrigationPricing does not reflect true costs – ecological and social – of water e.g. inadequate ecological provisioning will have severe long term effects. Ironically, the poor pay more for water.Equitable access seems a distant possibility – existing power structures will continue to ensure so
39 Reading references Title Author references Water Scarcity : Fact or FictionFrank R Rijsberman, International Water Management Institute, ColomboFundamentals of Ecology – the chapter on Water CycleOdum and BarrettContexts and Constructions of Water ScarcityLyla Mehta in ‘the Economic and Political Weekly’, Nov 2003Supply Side Hydrology in India – The last gaspRohan D’Souza ‘The Economic and Political Weekly’. September 2003Water for India in 2050 : first order assessment of available optionsS.K.Gupta and R.D.Deshpande in ‘Current Science’, May 2004Peak Limits to freshwater withdrawal and usePeter H.Gleick and Meera Palaniappan in PNAS journal JuneWorld Water in 2025Alcamo, Henrichs and Rosch for Kassel World Water Series Report 2Videos on waterThe Water Channel at