Presentation on theme: "Integrated Water Resources Management in Laos - Some Data on Flood in Laos and Nam Ngum River Basin 2011 Souphasay Komany Acting Director Nam Ngum River."— Presentation transcript:
Integrated Water Resources Management in Laos - Some Data on Flood in Laos and Nam Ngum River Basin 2011 Souphasay Komany Acting Director Nam Ngum River Basin Committee Secretariat Department of Water Resources Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and
Water Resources Status in Lao PDR
Annual Surface Water Availability and Sectoral Consumptive Uses 4 Surface Water Availability: 270 Billion CM 3
History – Regional Context –October 1957: Establishment of the Lower “Mekong Commission”, the Secretariat had been based in Bangkok. –…………. Mekong Committee. …... –1978 – 1995: Interim Mekong Committee. –1995: Mekong River Commission. Under the Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin (Mekong Agreement 1995); Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing; Procedures for Water Use Monitoring; Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement The Secretariat based in Phnom Phene 1998 – 2003; in Vientiane 2004 – 2010; and Co-host Location between Lao and Cambodia 2010 – 5
History – National Context Constitution, Article 17: All organizations and citizens must protect the environment and natural resources: land, underground, forests, fauna, water sources and atmosphere. Environmental Law 1999 specifies necessary principles, rules and measures for managing, monitoring, restoring and protecting the environment in order to protect public, natural resources and biodiversity, and to ensure the sustainable socio-economic development of the nation. 6
History – National Context Water Law 1996 paved the way for application of IWRM principles: – “determines necessary Principles, rules, and measures relative to the administration, exploitation, use and development of water and water resources in the Lao people's Democratic Republic to preserve sustainable water and water resources and to ensure volume and quality providing for people 's living requirements, promoting agriculture, forestry, and industry, developing the national souci-economy and ensuring that no damage is caused to the environment”. Decree to Implement the Water Law 2001provides officially cross-sectoral framework for coordination and functional arrangement: – “The decree establishes the responsibilities of different ministries, agencies and local authorities with regard to the management, exploitation, development and use of water and water resources. – The Decree shall also ensure efficient development and use, conformity with the socio-economic development planning, an increase in production, an improvement of the living conditions of the people and sustainable use of water resources”. 7
History – National Context Legal and regulatory framework and management tools developed in a less integration and given provisions were too general with the lack of subsidiary legislations. On the other hand, their enforcement were relatively limited; –Water Law is considered as framework legislation with limited dissemination and weak enforcement; –Lake of supporting subsidiary legislation, regulations and tools; Sectoral planning observably fragmented with insufficient communication with the lack of resources supported for implementation and fully goal achievement; 8
History – National Context Previous River Basin / Water Resources Management: –No formal RBO in-functioned; –No commonly institutional arrangement – –project-based arrangement; –Sector-based design; –Limit coordination on planning and management; Establishment of the Water Resources Coordination Committee (WRCC), 1999: –Functional Conflict with the existing Lao National Mekong Committee (LNMC), since over 90% of the Lao territory is within the MRB; Concept of IRBM Confused with Integrated Watershed Management Function; 9
History – National Context At the beginning lack of national coordination / management agency (apex body); and later the coordination agency was existed but facing with insufficient authority and less recognition; Lake of human resources and technical capacity; Limited understanding on IWRM at national and local levels; Fragmented, in-updated and unqualified data and information, inconsistent data and information system; 10
Present – National Arrangement LNMC – National Water Apex Body as part of its MRC institutional Arrangement; –Honorably chaired by Deputy Prime Minister and permanently chaired by WREA; member by vice ministers of line agencies; Former WREA (now MoNRE) – Public Administrative Body brought about IWRM functions into official stage and provide management framework for future IWRM application by considering IRBM as a heart; DWR – Combines LNMCS and WRCCS in one and acts as LNMC Secretariat as part of its national administrative functions; Reconceptionalizing of IRBM and IWM Functions - Agreement between WREA and MAF on River Basin Planning and Landscape Continuum Planning, 2009; Setting up the national Models of RBC: NN RBC and NTNK RBC; 11
Mandate of RBCs Based on the Prime Ministerial Decree, no. 293/PM, dated 15 June Principles: –IWRM through consultation and participation development process in river basin area among all involved agencies, including government, private sector, communities and other involved parties; –Ensure equitable water resources use and sustainable ecosystem; –Apply mechanism for polluter / user pay fee.
Mandate of RBCs 2. Location: –River Basin Committee: Non-permanent organization; Basin-based water resources management; Under the supervision of the LNMC –Secretariat: Permanent organization; Institutionally located under and technically supported by WREA (Now is reorganized as under DWR of MoNRE); Has the permaent office location at a province in the basin; Acts as an advisory body and permanent office to the RBC.
Mandate of RBCs 3. Organization and Membership –River Basin Committee: Chaired by one of the provincial governors in the basin and has 5 year rotation; Vice-chaired by vice governors in the basin and the Vice Head of WREA (now is being reorganized as MoNRE); Key National Departments as Members; Key Provincial Divisions in the basin as Members; Representatives of Development Groups (Hydropower, Mining, Industry and Agriculture> in the basin as Members: Representatives of Communities in the basin as Members: Prepresentatives of Multi-ethnic Groups and Mass Organizations in the basin as Members. –Secretariat: The DG of RBCS has jurisdictional position as same as DG of Department; Composes of DDGs, Head and Deputy Heads and staff; (Now this structure is being reorganized, which is possibly under the DWR of MoNRE).
Coordination Arrangement (Impermanent Bodies) Public Administration (Legislative / Permanent Bodies) International and Sub-international Basin Sub-national Basin National Government MoNRE Ministries / Agencies Lao National Mekong Committee River Basin Committee DWR / LNMC Secretariat MoNRE Depts Relevant Depts / Divs Provincial DoNREs National Level Sub-basin Prov. Level RBC Secretariat Prov. Agencies Sub-Basin Committees District OoNREs Dist. Agencies Mekong River Commission Sectoral Sub-committees / Forums Prov. Adms Dist. Adms Dist. Level Task Forces / Working Groups / Advisory Groups 15
Physical Features Area16,800 square km (7% of national area) Length354 km Water Resources Average Flow to Mekong River 22 billion m3 / year (14% Mekong Flow) Annual Water Use0.9 billion m3 Agriculture: 99% Urban: 0.5% Industrial: 0.1% Land Cover and Use Natural Forest47% Shrub land / Re-growth34% Agriculture8% Grassland7% Water surface3% Urban area0.02% Administration No. of provinces5 No. of District19 Population502,000 persons (9% of Lao PDR) Nam Ngum RB Profile ISSUES: - lack of knowledge, experiences and inadequate capacity; - water use for various purposes; - hydropower development; - irrigation schemes have increasingly developed throughout the basin; - lack of sub-basin management plans - impact from water related disaster – flood & drought. ISSUES: - lack of knowledge, experiences and inadequate capacity; - water use for various purposes; - hydropower development; - irrigation schemes have increasingly developed throughout the basin; - lack of sub-basin management plans - impact from water related disaster – flood & drought.
Major Sectoral Water Resources Development in the Nam Ngum River Basin Major DebvelopmentPresent SituationFuture Expectation Hydropower5 Projects (2011)14 Projects (2020) Irrigation58,000 Ha (2004)Maximum Potential: 150,000 Ha Domestic Water Use326,000 m3/Month (2006) 482,500 m3/Month (2020) Tourism250,000 visitors (2010)1,600,000 visitors (2020) Medium and Major Mining Over 34 Projects (2007)Expected to be largely increased Medium and Major Industries 197 plants (2008)Expected to be largely increased Other water usesIncreasingExpected to be largely increased 18
The Nam Ngum- Mekong Linkage 19
NN RIVER BASIN PLANNING DEVELOPMENT PLANS National Province District OTHER PLANS MRC BDP & Procedures Sector plans Climate change adaptation plans MDG, PRSP etc.etc. WATER RESOURCES PLANS National WR Strategy MoNRE Strategy NN IWRM Plan NNRB PLAN ANNUAL NNRBC WORK PLANS (NNRB Secretariat) STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS NNRBC SUB-BASIN COMMITTEES (Districts, communities)
NN IWRM Planning Initiatives Key Result Areas: 1.Building Capacity to Manage the NNRB; 2.Sustainable Water Use; 3.Optimization Hydropower Outcomes; 4.Developing the Irrigation Potential of the Basin; 5.River Sub-basin Management; 6.Reducing Risks and Impacts from Water Relate Disasters.
Flood Characteristics in Laos and NNRB Floods are by far the most damaging of all the natural disasters the strike the Lao PDR. The central and southern regions are most affected by the frequent floods. Flooding is a regular occurrence in the Nam Ngum River Basin and casing economic loss, social hardship and the times loss life. Flooding is also important for the maintenance of riparian and aquatic ecosystems and also contributes to improve the fertility of soils. Flooding on the Vientiane Plains is a serious and complex problem caused by waters from the Nam Ngum River, the unregulated Nam Lik River and interaction with the waters of the Mekong river.
23 Luangprabang Province Flood in urban center and adjacent Xiengkhuang Province Historical flsah flood of two districts Bolikhamxay Province Flood along the Mekong on the Road No.13 Vientiane Province Flash flood of Vangvieng and Kasi Districts Vientiane Capital Flood in urban districts Khammuan Province Flood along the Mekong on road No. 13 and Xebangfai River Champasack Province Flood at the river mount of Sedone River Saravan and Sekong Provinces Historical flash flood to urban and adjacent districts
Flood damage and impacts in Nam Ngum (2011) Provinces affected 3 provinces: Xiengkhouang, Vientiane, Vientiane Capital Districts affected 13 Villages affected 252 People affected People injured People killed 8 Cost damaged in Nam Ngum > 14 millions USD
Agriculture Hectares of Rice paddy fields affected3, Irrigation damaged Livestock Cattle141 head lost Poultry6,622 head lost Fish ponds, fishes and aquaculture179 sites Flood damage and impacts in Nam Ngum (2011) – cont.
Existing and Planned Hydropower Development Plan