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Country report on Water Resources Demand Management for Irrigation Presented by Mr.Thong Sokvongsa, Deputy Chief Office Mr. Khun Sovithea, Technical Officer.

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Presentation on theme: "Country report on Water Resources Demand Management for Irrigation Presented by Mr.Thong Sokvongsa, Deputy Chief Office Mr. Khun Sovithea, Technical Officer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Country report on Water Resources Demand Management for Irrigation Presented by Mr.Thong Sokvongsa, Deputy Chief Office Mr. Khun Sovithea, Technical Officer Ministry of Environment, CAMBODIA July 2011,Bankok, Thailand

2 Introduction   Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia between   Latitudes 10 and 15 North and   Longitudes 102 and 108 East   It has an area of km2   Lao PDR in the North   Thailand in the North and Northwest   Vietnam in the East and Southeast   And by the Gulf of Thailand to the Southwest

3 Introduction (cont)   Wet (May-October)   Dry (Nov-April)   rainfall 1300 mm/year   85 % of total population are farmers.   Rice is the most important crop in Cambodia.   Average yield 2 T/ha

4 Population and Key Socio-economic Indicators   Total population million, 52.2% are female and 47.8% are male;   An average growth 1.81%;   Population density of 79% per sq. km;   85.% living in rural area, 15% in urban area and 6.9% in Phnom Penh   Some Key socio-economic Indicators: GDP: 2007: 8.2 B USD, per capita: 550$   Agriculture: 34% (down from 46% in 1997) Industry: 27% (major contribution: Garment) Services: 39% (major contribution: Tourism) Based on MOP, May 2007

5 Land   The Country consisting of 23 provinces and 1 capital and divided into 185 districts;   59% (11 million ha) is classified as forest area;   21% (3.78 million ha) is cultivated areas and   91.2% are occupied by paddy cultivation

6 Water Resource Potential in Cambodia   Water Resource Irrigated Area (ha)   Main Stream 734,000   Mekong Tributaries 253,000   Mekong Flooded Area 179,000   Tonle Sap Tributaries 358,900   Outside Mekong Basin 142,000   Total 1,667,300

7 Tonle Sap Basin: River & Irrigation

8 Existing Irrigation  MORAM estimated that the existing irrigation covered at 1.05 M ha  160,000 ha served by small scale scheme  620,000 ha served by medium scale scheme  270,000 ha served by large scale scheme  Only 56% of that irrigated are effective served  Effective irrigation cover 590,000 ha

9 Water Use In Cambodia (Million m³ /Year)

10 Policy and Program  National water resources policy  Law on WRM (2007)  National water sector profile  Water resources Road map,  National water resources strategy  National Environmental Action Plan

11 Strategies  Technical Working Group for Agriculture and Water Resources  Joint Strategy for Agriculture and Water (MAFF and MOWRAM Feb 07)  Framework for FWUC  National Programme for Household Food Security and Poverty Reduction (MAFF, Jun 06)  IWRM strategy (MOWRAM, 06)  Cambodia Millennium Development Goals 2003 (Nov03)  National Poverty Reduction Strategy (Nov 02)

12 Goals of Water Resources Policy  The goals of water Resources policy is to ensure effective and sustainable management of water resources in the further 20 years. More specifically are: More specifically are:  To protect, manage and use of water with effective, equitable and sustainable manner,  To foresee and take measure to assist related institution to settle the facing problems which might be occurred in water sector, institution to settle the facing problems which might be occurred in water sector,

13 Goals of Water Resources Policy (Cont)  To develop and implement the national strategy and formulate the national policy and sector policy on water resources management;  To direct the water resources development, management and utilization in the Kingdom of Cambodia to all activities of institutions, private sector and public sector,  To improve and uplift the people living to achieve the national policy on poverty reduction and sustainable national economy development

14 Priorities Direction of NWRP 1. To provide farmers with the quantity and quality of water they need, when and where they need it, and within the limits of need, when and where they need it, and within the limits of available water resources and technology. available water resources and technology. 2. To promote the rehabilitation and construction of irrigation, drainage, and flood management infrastructure, in order to provide sufficient water for agricultural production and to provide sufficient water for agricultural production and to alleviate the adverse consequences of excess water. alleviate the adverse consequences of excess water. 3. To promote the development and extension of appropriate water management technologies that are particularly suited to rain-fed agricultural areas, such as water harvesting, rain-fed agricultural areas, such as water harvesting, improvements to the moisture-holding capacities of soils and improvements to the moisture-holding capacities of soils and use of farm ponds. use of farm ponds.

15 Priorities Direction of NWRP ( Cont) 4. To strengthen and expand Farmer Water User Communities, to enable them to participate in water management and allocation and to maintain irrigation infrastructure with effectiveness and sustainability. Communities, to enable them to participate in water management and allocation and to maintain irrigation infrastructure with effectiveness and sustainability. 5.To minimize the impact on the water resources caused by the uses of chemical substances in the agricultural production by encouraging people to implement production by encouraging people to implement diversified agriculture and Integrated Pest Management (IPM). diversified agriculture and Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

16 Priorities Direction of NWRP ( Cont) 6. Introduction and implementation of IWRM concept into the priority river basin by establishing RBO. A number of other policy points in the NWRP have much relevance to water management for agriculture, related to resource management on the basis of river basins, equitable sharing and allocation of water, and the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. A number of other policy points in the NWRP have much relevance to water management for agriculture, related to resource management on the basis of river basins, equitable sharing and allocation of water, and the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems.

17 Law on Water Resources Management  The general purpose of this Law is to foster the effective and sustainable management of the water resources of the Kingdom of Cambodia to attain socio-economic development and the welfare of the people. - The rights and obligations of water users, - The fundamental principles of water resources - The fundamental principles of water resources management, and management, and - The participation of users and their associations in the - The participation of users and their associations in the sustainable development of water resources. sustainable development of water resources.

18 Under Law on Water Resources Management 4 Sub-decrees were identified : 4 Sub-decrees were identified :  River Basin Management  Water Allocation and Licensing  Water Quality  Farmer Water User Community

19 Institutional Involve with River Basin Management   Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology   Ministry of Environment   Ministry of Industry, Mine and Energy   Ministry of Rural Development   Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries   Cambodia National Mekong Committee

20 Lesson learned ADB and AFD Funding Projects  Key indicators to assess quality of the water management organization i) the institutional link between the management body, users, and local authorities body, users, and local authorities ii ) presence/absence of an operation plan iii) presence/absence of a maintenance plan iii) presence/absence of a maintenance plan iv) gap between theoretical operation and/or maintenance plan s and reality maintenance plan s and reality v) presence/absence of rules and regulations and the capacity of the management body to enforce them capacity of the management body to enforce them  Two major challenges for irrigation management bodies a) remaintenance and b) internal rules and regulations.

21 Lesson Learned (cont)  FWUC capacity building requires time, so that leaders and users capacity can be increased. Skills that need to be developed by FWUC leaders relates to: 1) irrigation scheme operation capacity (how to control water, share it amongst users with equity), water, share it amongst users with equity), 2) maintenance capacity (what job should be done and when, how to make a contract with an entrepreneur, when, how to make a contract with an entrepreneur, how to control the quality of the maintenance work) how to control the quality of the maintenance work) 3) accounting capacity (how to keep clear accounts of fee collection and expenditures) fee collection and expenditures) 4 ) financing capacity (how to build the fee amount, how to collect a good rate) to collect a good rate) 5) enforcement capacity (what and how to enforce) 5) enforcement capacity (what and how to enforce)

22 Problems and Challenges  Inadequate legislation framework  Institutional capacity building remain limited at both national and provincial level  Institutional structure and arrangement: limited coordination among water-related institutions  Unplanned urban and industrial development  Water resource management is not undertaken in an integrated manner

23 Assistance Required  Capacity building for government officers at both national and provincial level  Law enforcement

24 Thanks for your attention !


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