Presentation on theme: "Water service provision and water demand management in large irrigation schemes Daniel Renault FAOWATER DROPS & CROPS [2.3 5.2] Tuesday 17 th March Feshane."— Presentation transcript:
Water service provision and water demand management in large irrigation schemes Daniel Renault FAOWATER DROPS & CROPS [ ] Tuesday 17 th March Feshane 4
Water Demand Management Demand Management definition: In natural resources management and environmental policy, “Demand Management” refers to policies to control consumer demand for environmentally sensitive or harmful goods such as water and energy. Water Demand Management is understood broadly as making the most of available water [as opposed to supply side, i.e. increasing the supply.]
How is it achieved? Placing actors of the process in a position to be highly interested by minimizing water use and maximizing the outputs per unit of water [Flexibility and responsibility] Depending on who you are or what sphere of society you are in: Food supply capita/m3 Diets – Food chain Money or Value/m3 agriculture economy Jobs/m3 social
Several levels/actors for Water End users farmers // other uses System to large management units // other uses/users: Water Service Providers River basin to system: Regulating Authority and Legislator
Some of the WDM tools/Users Economical signals: Volumetric charging Constraining the allocation: Allocating limited volume of water : quotas Promoting exchange: water markets. Some of the supporting means Agriculture diversification Irrigation Technical improvements (ex. drip)
2 major issues with WDM tools: Are they effective ? Are they practical ? In the details Where is the devil ?
The devil in Efficiency Water losses are not often real losses Water recycling is important (same use) Room for savings may be very limited! The devil in Productivity Multiple uses of Water is a critical asset on many large irrigation systems: productivity in agriculture OUTPUTS is not enough.
Multiple Uses of water Ex. Agro-Forest-Fish systems in Sri Lanka Fish= 19 % of the agri. gross product
A provider of service : Irrigation agency – association, produces and delivers A receiver of the service : end user –association, requests, receives and remunerates. Service Oriented Management [SOM] = 3 basic flows WATER - INFORMATION – MONEY SERVICE PROVISION
Water Information Money
Irrigation services Dimensions of service in irrigation: Allocation of water Scheduling of irrigation watering Delivery of water. Different levels of service in irrigation: Main Canal to secondary Secondary to tertiary canals Final deliveries
Allocation matters for WDM Managing water storage from one season to the other (wet and dry season) is an important asset for WDM [adjusting for Adequacy]. Actors to decide about storing/using their water share or quantum.
Irrigation scheduling matters Rigid imposed scheduling are heavy constraints when no other source of water Imposed scheduling are often based on staple food [fixed season - low frequency] cannot cope with cash crops and off season crops when markets are more profitable.
Services (1) Reliability LOW R = HIGH RISKS HIGH R =LOW RISKS but LOW FLEX. = LOW CHOICE Flexibility NO RISKS High CHOICE Heavy losses of water Minimum losses of water Medium losses of water
Services (2) Adequacy LIMITED -QUOTAS ILLIMITED – economical signals Equity High equity = cost/decision well shared sustainability of the whole system Farmers adjust cropping pattern to their resources Low equity chaos and water losses
What else matters ? Energy matters on IS Labor matters Money matters (no money no maintenance)
Performance of service/level Example of Rice based systems – ASIA 3 types: U U U U U U U U U
Service provision is more complex more demanding service to users more diversified (quality- cost) Water management more demanding Cost effective Management
Statement 1: BULK management enough To control and minimize water use, managing water on the solely basis of water balance at subsystem is needed and sufficient. DROPS & CROPS [ ] Tuesday 17 th March Feshane 4 Statement 2: Chirurgical management needed To enable actors maximizing the outputs, services oriented management is required.
Thank you DROPS & CROPS [ ] Tuesday 17 th March Feshane 4