NOIC 2009/10 – 10,000ha Gross Farm Revenue x3.1 ($21million - $65million) Farm Expenditure x3.1 ($13million - $43million) – most flows to local economy Cash Farm Surplus x3.1 ($7million - $22million) Employment x2.1 (71- 147 FTE’s) direct Farmers spent $62million in conversion – most flows to local economy
More than $$$’s...... but they are the enabler Prosperity = Opportunity Social (community) resilience quality of service provision Recreation New opportunities improvements to existing Cultural / Environmental mitigation restoration
Social (community) direct property loss Recreation someone’s favourite swim hole / fishing spot Cultural / Environmental Direct habitat Indirect impacts – water quality It’s about establishing a ‘framework’ (CWMS targets) and testing options Informing the politics and emotion
More complex than just use........ Need to consider - Supply (take characteristics) Distribution (how gets to farm) Use (how applied)
Many definitions (over 40)……… Technical (how much used) Allocative / Economic – Highest value achieved (society) Dynamic – Adjusting to above over time (flexibility) Within Technical Production Hydrological Profitability Energy………. But all easier said than done!!!
Loss componentRangeTypical Leaking pipes0-10%0-1% Evaporation in the air0-10%<3% Wind blowing water off target (drift)0-20%<5% Interception (canopy losses)0-10%<5% Surface runoff (spray irrigation)0-10%<2% Uneven application and/or excessive application depths and rates 5 - 80%5 - 30% Lincoln Environmental Data
From A.J. Clemmens Canterbury, Hawke’s Bay & Marlborough 0 20 40 60 80 100 percent efficiency Solid Set Rotating Boom Fixed Boom Travelling Gun Centre Pivot Linear Move *Multiple sprayline Side Roll Drip Microspray Bubbler Low Head Basin Paddy Basin Border Strip Furrow Modern Furrow
Reliability = Continuity of Supply Measured by level of drought / security High reliability usually requires a ‘storage’ Reservoirs / dams Groundwater
Achieving ‘Good Management Practice’ more complex than on-farm practices Reliability of supply – key driver and an enabler Also Drives Land Use (Risk Management) Pastoral low reliability = OK Alternative easy (import feed / dry-off) Arable & Horticulture = Higher Reliability No or reduced yield
Water Infrastructure (storage) NOT a reward........... it’s essential to the Solution Uncertainty = ‘Just in Case’ management but Certainty = ‘Just in Time’ management Optimal water use = Optimal environmental performance Less water per hectare, less storage required and less losses (leaching) = Improved Water Quality
Environmental Performance (Minimise cumulative effects - water use and nutrient losses) Environmental Performance (Minimise cumulative effects - water use and nutrient losses) Security and Certainty (Duration of right coupled with sureness of future policy goalposts)) Security and Certainty (Duration of right coupled with sureness of future policy goalposts)) Reliability (Multi-purpose water storage) Reliability (Multi-purpose water storage) Crop Diversity & Added Value (Increased range of crops grown & more local processing) Crop Diversity & Added Value (Increased range of crops grown & more local processing) Investment - Water Use Efficiency (Efficient distribution and application systems coupled with ‘just in time’ management) Investment - Water Use Efficiency (Efficient distribution and application systems coupled with ‘just in time’ management) Reduced Energy (Distribution and application system optimisation) Reduced Energy (Distribution and application system optimisation) Resilient Communities (Diverse local economy & greater prosperity) Resilient Communities (Diverse local economy & greater prosperity) Reliability System Linkages
Complex/Uncontrollable Simple/Controllable Increasing Uncertainty/IrregularityCertain/Regular/Predictable Complex/Uncontrollable Regulate activities, monitor & control Economic instruments, incentivise desired outcome thru ‘rational choice’ market models Biophysical and social resilience and capacities - foresee, buffer, adapt, & shape/vision a future; innovative and initiating cultures Scenario analysis; adaptive management; monitoring A B C Public participation, co-management, motivation, ethical/value systems knowledge systems, local governance systems Regulate effects (set ‘outcome’ standards), monitor, top-down ‘educate’ Choices in Perspective
‘Transfer of day-to-day resource management responsibilities to users, under agreed terms (self management) and subject to an accountability (audit) process’ Much Confusion Around ASM – But we have ventured into the space informally and formally What is Audited Self-Management
The Drivers Harnesses community energy and knowledge Align regulatory with market compliance and farm management needs Drives cost efficiencies - market for regulatory & streamlines multiple needs Decrease regulatory cost to general rate payer More effective management comes through partnership (compared to top down enforcement) NZ environment and economy needs optimal resource management……..
INZ Projects Irrigator User Groups Days of Individual consent holder numbered Future = catchment / zonal based management Prize = better environmental management ASM for Rakaia-Selwyn Cost efficiencies Knowledge systems Better environmental management More effective use of available resource
Precision Resource Information Linking of Supply & Demand Real-time Management Incorporation of Forecasting (Resource Availability) Reliable Supply Efficient Use – Precision Irrigation Environmental Outcomes Achieved