3Main Challenges Facing Water and Desalination Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaRapid increase in population, increase in water demand, industrialization andhigh per-capita consumptionDecommissioning of existing desalination plants in the near future.4132Limited natural water sources; Widening the gap between waterdemand and supplyLarge investments for new desalination projects
4To Overcome the Shortage of Water Desalinated water is an important contributor to alleviate water shortage.Today’s world contracted capacity of desalinated plants is 80.2 million m3/day and commissioned capacity 74.6 million m3/day.632 new plants were added last year (mid 2011 to August 2012) in the worldScarcity of fresh water resources is a major challenge facing Saudi Arabia soDesalination is a strategic industry for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
13IWPP Projects in Saudi Arabia Shuaibah Phase-3 IWPPand Shuaibah Expansion IWPACWA Power, Saudi Arabia Malakoff Berhard, Malaysia Tenaga Nasional Berhard,Malaysia KhazanahNasional, MalaysiaIWPP Projects in Saudi Arabia2500 MW176 MIGD800,000 m3/day( SWCC 500,000 m3/day )Marafiq900 MW194 MIGD880,000 m3/dayShoaibaShoaiba ExpansionShuqaiq150,000 m3/dayShuqaiq Phase-2 IWPP ACWA Power, Saudi Arabia Gulf Investment Corporation (GIC), Kuwait Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan850 MW47 MIGD212,000 m3/day
14Locations of Main Water & Power Generation Plants And Transmission Pipelines
15KSA Total Water Demand Versus Planned Supply Sources (in ‘000 m3/day, 2005–2025)
16Desalination share in water Water Demand in KSA – Main Figures20102025Population(Million)27.234 (*)Water demand(Million m3/day)6.88.5 (*)Desalination share in water53%(3.3 Million m3/day)63%(5.2 Million m3/day)(*): assuming an average annual growth rate of 1.5%
17SWCC plants under construction and tendering Plant Water(m3/day)Power(Megawatts)Commissioning DateRas Al-Khair1,025,0002,4002013 / 2014Yanbu 3550,0002,5002016PlantsCapacity(m3/day)Power Capacity(Megawatts)Expected DateHaql 39,000-2014Dhuba 4Rabigh 3 A600,000Rabigh 3 B400,000
18Station Capacity M3/day The New and Proposed Desalination Plants for the PeriodStation Capacity M3/dayJazan RegionAsir RegionAlQseem RegionTabuk RegionEastern RegionMedina AreaMakkah RegionRiyadh RegionDesalination PlantYear240,000Jeddah RO20131,025,000200,000100,000700,000Ras Alkhair201530,000Al Khafji 39,000Duba 4Alwajh 4Haqal 31,000,000Rabigh20171,500,000750,000550,000Jubail 32019400,000Jeddah RO 42025925,000150,000775,000Al Khubar 445,000Al Khafji 417,000Omluj 47,500Haqal 4225,00050,000175,000Shuqaiq 3 First stage
19Total = US$ 17.5 Billion (SR 65 Billion) Total Capital Investments until 2020CAPEX 17,453Total = US$ 17.5 Billion (SR 65 Billion)
20Alternative energy for Desalination SWCC plants use either gas or liquid oil ( crude oil or heavy fuel oil) as source of energy and energy cost contribute almost 50% towards cost of water. It is Energy intensiveSWCC consumes around 0.3 million of the daily kingdoms oil productionTransportation of fuel for plants at remote places especially satellite plants incurs huge expenses apart from other difficulties such as non delivery of fuel in time and maintenance of accessories and equipment for transport of fuel. As an example transporting fuel of diesel to Farasan plant is around 300 SAR for each cubic meter of diesel.
21Possible Scenarios 1- Additional fossil-based capacity 2- No additional fossil-based capacity (Additional capacity from renewable energy)3- No additional fossil-based capacity (Additional capacity from nuclear energy)4- a combination of the aboveSo Nuclear energy for water Desalination is an Option for kingdom of Saudi Arabia