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UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA Utilization of Micro Hydro for Generating Electricity and It’s Potential in Indonesia.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA Utilization of Micro Hydro for Generating Electricity and It’s Potential in Indonesia."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA Utilization of Micro Hydro for Generating Electricity and It’s Potential in Indonesia

2 UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA Utilization of Micro Hydro for Generating Electricity and It’s Potential in Indonesia Kusnu Budi Hartanto, Mariana Bariyyah, Mohamad Adi Rahman Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management

3 Clean Energy Regulatory Framework in Indonesia The energy sector in Indonesia is dominated by four key policies and objectives:  Diversification: A key objective of the Government of Indonesia is to reduce dependence on oil by expanding the use of coal, gas, and renewable energy resources.  Rational Energy Pricing: The Government of Indonesia recognizes that it can no longer sustain uniform pricing for electricity and petroleum products across the country, and it has begun to eliminate subsidies.  Energy Sector Reform: The combination of decentralization of government decision-making to give greater involvement to regional authorities, and the need to attract capital investment in the energy sector call for energy sector reform that introduces greater transparency to planning and decision-making. This is now a critical priority for the government.  Rural Electrification: The Government of Indonesia wants to bring electricity to 90 percent of the population by 2020.

4 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Government’s Policy on Renewable Energy Utilization of Renewable Energy will be part of Government’s policy in promoting “Green Energy Program” under the proposed “Energy Law”.  Electricity Law No. 20/2002  Electricity Law No. 20/2002 states that Renewable Energy is the first priority for providing electricity in the country. Presidential Regulation No. 5/2006  The basis for renewable energy development in Indonesia is Presidential Regulation No. 5/2006 on National Energy Policy. It sets national targets for an optimal energy mix in 2025: (i) less than 20 percent from oil; (ii) more than 30 percent from gas; (iii) more than 33 percent from coal; (iv) more than 5 percent from bio-fuel; (v) more than 5 percent from geothermal; (vi) more than 5 percent from other renewable, especially biomass, nuclear, micro-hydro, solar and wind; and (vi) more than 2 percent from liquefied coal. Source: Direktorat Jenderal Listrik dan Pemanfaatan Energi Departemen Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral

5 Government’s Policy on Renewable Energy Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management

6 ENERGI BERKELANJUTAN

7 Indonesian’s Renewable Energy Potential Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Energy Sources Potential (MW) Installed (MW) Expected Invest. US$/kW Expected Energy Cost US$/kWh Hydro (Big scale) 75,6743,1062,000 – 3,000 - Mini & Micro Hydro 230,91332 & 221,000 – 2, – Geothermal19, – 1, – 0.05 Biomass ,200 – 1,500Vary Solar4-6.5 kWh/m 2 /day59,000 – 15,0001 – 2 Win3-6 m/sec0.51,000 – 1, – 0.06 Source: Source: Distributed Small Scale Power Plant (DSSPP) in Indonesia - INDONESIAN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOCIATY (IRES)

8 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management What is Micro-Hydro Power Hydro power Flowing and falling water have potential energy. Hydro power comes from converting energy in flowing water by means of a water wheel or through a turbine into useful mechanical power. This power is converted into electricity using an electric generator. Hydro Power schemes are classified by the output power which they produce as approximately:  Large scale: 2 MW and above  Mini: 100 kW to 2 MW Micro: 5 kW to 100 kW  Micro: 5 kW to 100 kW  Pico: less than 5 kW Micro-hydro schemes Micro-hydro schemes produce power from streams and small rivers. The power can be used to generate electricity, or to drive machinery. What are the benefits of using micro-hydro? In remote areas, micro-hydro schemes can bring electricity for the first time to whole communities. This provides lighting, TV and communications for homes, schools, clinics and community buildings. The electrical power from micro-hydro also is sufficient to run machinery and refrigerators, thus supporting small businesses as well as homes.

9 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Potential of Mini and Micro Hydro in Indonesia (Major Islands) LocationExpected Potential Capacity (kW) SUMATRA39,954 KALIMANTAN8,987 SULAWESI141,824 MALUKU2,941 NUSA TENGGARA24,274 IRIAN/PAPUA12,933 TOTAL230,913 Source: Source: Distributed Small Scale Power Plant (DSSPP) in Indonesia - INDONESIAN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOCIATY (IRES)

10 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Micro-Hydro Power Component Source: Source: Micro-Hydropower System – A Buyer Guide (Canada), 2004

11 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Micro-Hydro Power Component Micro-hydro systems have the following components:  A water turbine that converts the energy of flowing or falling water into mechanical energy that drives a generator, which generates electrical power – this is the heart of a micro-hydropower system.  A control mechanism to provide stable electrical power.  Electrical transmission lines to deliver the power to its destination. Depending on the site, the following may be needed to develop a micro-hydropower system:  An intake or weir to divert stream flow from the water course.  A canal/pipeline to carry the water flow to the forebay from the intake.  A forebay tank and trash rack to filter debris and prevent it from being drawn into the turbine at the penstock pipe intake.  A penstock pipe to convey the water to the powerhouse.  A powerhouse, in which the turbine and generator convert the power of the water into electricity.  A tailrace through which the water is released back to the river or stream.

12 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management How to Plan for Micro Hydro System 1. How to Measure Potential Power and Energy The first step is to determine the hydro potential of water flowing from the river or stream. We will need to know the flow rate of the water and the head through which the water can fall, as defined in the following:  The flow rate is the quantity of water flowing past a point at a given time. Typical units used for flow rate are cubic metres per second (m3/s), litres per second (lps), gallons per minute (gpm) and cubic feet per minute (cfm).  The head is the vertical height in metres (m) or feet (ft.) from the level where the water enters the intake pipe (penstock) to the level where the water leaves the turbine housing Power Calculation The amount of power available from a micro hydro power system is directly related to the flow rate, head and the force of gravity. This is only the theoretical available power, assuming that 100 percent of the power available in the water can be usefully converted. Efficiency of the system also needs to be taken into account.

13 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management How to Plan for Micro Hydro System 2. Assessing Power and Energy Requirement In assessing the feasibility of developing a micro hydro power system, you should carefully examine your power and energy requirements. The power you need is the instantaneous intensity of electricity required to power the appliances you use; this is measured in kilowatts. To estimate how much electricity you need:  List all your electrical appliances and lights and note when and how long they are used.  Note the power that each appliance consumes. An appliance’s power rating is usually written on the back of the appliance and is measured in watts or kilowatts.  Record the number of hours each appliance is used in a typical day.  For each appliance, multiply the power rating in watts by the number of hours used each day to obtain the number of watt hours (or kWh) that the appliance uses per day.

14 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management How to Plan for Micro Hydro System 3. Managing Energy Demand and Apply Load Management Source: Source: Micro-Hydropower System – A Buyer Guide (Canada), 2004

15 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management How to Plan for Micro Hydro System 3. Sizing the System The most important question in planning a micro hydro power system is how much energy can be expected from the site and whether or not the site will produce enough power to meet your energy needs.

16 Types of Hydro power Turbines Impulse Turbines:  Uses the velocity of the water to move the runner and discharges to atmospheric pressure.  The water stream hits each bucket on the runner.  High head, low flow applications.  Types : Pelton turbine, Turgo turbine Reaction Turbines:  Combined action of pressure and moving water.  Runner placed directly in the water stream flowing over the blades rather than striking each individually.  Lower head and higher flows than compared with the impulse turbines. Chain Turbines:  It is a gravity machine  It is built up of two parallel chain systems joint together at the chains with a series of buckets.  The flow rater entering the buckets is controlled by the water valve through a motor to open or close the valve. Buckets fill full of water go down to bring to rotary sprocket system.

17 Types of Hydro power Turbines: Impulse Turbines Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Pelton Pelton wheel from Walchensee, Germany (left) and a plan view of a Pelton turbine installation (right)

18 Types of Hydro power Turbines: Impulse Turbines Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Schemes of Pelton Turbines

19 Types of Hydro power Turbines: Reaction Turbines Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Schemes of Francais Turbines

20 Types of Hydro power Turbines: Reaction Turbines Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Schemes of Kaplan Turbines

21 Types of Hydro power Turbines: Chain Turbines Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Schemes of Chain Turbines

22 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Advantages and Disadvantages of Micro Hydro Advantages: 1.Hydropower is fuelled by water, so it's a clean fuel source. 2.Hydropower doesn't pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or diesel. 3.Hydropower relies on the water cycle, which is driven by the sun, thus it's a renewable power source. 4.Hydropower is generally available as needed; engineers can control the flow of water through the turbines to produce electricity on demand. 5.Hydropower plants provide benefits in addition to clean electricity. Impoundment hydropower creates reservoirs that offer a variety of recreational opportunities, notably fishing, swimming, and boating. Most hydropower installations are required to provide some public access to the reservoir to allow the public to take advantage of these opportunities. 6.Other benefits may include water supply and flood control if you have storage scheme.

23 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Advantages and Disadvantages of Micro Hydro Disadvantages: 1.Fish populations can be impacted if fish cannot migrate upstream past impoundment dams to spawning grounds or if they cannot migrate downstream to the ocean. Remedies are fish ladders or elevators, or by trapping and hauling the fish upstream by truck. Other remedies can be by maintaining a minimum spill flow past the turbine. 2.Hydropower can impact water quality and flow. Hydropower plants can cause low dissolved oxygen levels in the water, which can be remedied by various aeration techniques, which oxygenate the water. 3.Hydropower plants can be impacted by drought. When water is not available, the hydropower plants can't produce electricity. What is the remedy for this ? Subject for discussion for all!!!

24 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Networking On Mini & Micro Hydro Project in Indonesia

25 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Micro Hydro Project Benefits in Indonesia

26 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Success Story Indonesia Micro Hydro (Tea Plantation) Best Practice Strong leadership by YBUL, a non-profit organization focusing on promoting green energy projects and tea plantation management took advantage of govt. support for renewable development program. USAID contributed 50% loan and channeled through YBUL while the project owner, PT Chakra, provides balance 50%. Loan tenor is 5 years with 2 years grace. Success Factors (1)Collaboration of associated parties and the project owner to provide technical assistance and financing of the micro-hydro project. (2)Forward looking estate management anticipated increased diesel oil price and support of local community in displacing kerosene using hydro-power. Lesson Learned (1)Stakeholders (both public/government and private sectors) worked closely together to ensure successful conversion of diesel generation sets to micro hydro. (2)Estate management received support of local community at early stage of development. Results 2×144 kW micro hydro generation replaced high cost diesel generation and reduced about 975 tones a year of CO2 emission. Operational since 2002 with payback after only 3 years. Source: Private-Public Partnership WEC PPP Case Studies for Asia Pacific and S. Asia (The Energy Future in an Independent World (Rome, 11/15 November 2007)

27 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Success Story Indonesia Micro Hydro (Tea Plantation) Source: Private-Public Partnership WEC PPP Case Studies for Asia Pacific and S. Asia (The Energy Future in an Independent World (Rome, 11/15 November 2007)

28 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Success Story Indonesia Micro Hydro (Tea Plantation) Source: Private-Public Partnership WEC PPP Case Studies for Asia Pacific and S. Asia (The Energy Future in an Independent World (Rome, 11/15 November 2007)

29 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Integrated Micro-hydro Development Source: Project Facts, Rural Development With Renewable Energy (UNDP)

30 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management CO2 Emission Source: Peraturan Presiden RI No. 61 Tahun 2011 (20 September 2011) National Action Plan for Reduction of Greenhouse Emission

31 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management

32 Investment Aspect Source: DJLPE, 2000 Unit cost of generation and production of renewable energy sources Energy SourcesInstalled Capacity (kW) Investment Cost (US$/kW) Price (US$/kWh) 1. Micro – hydro Wind Solar a.PV : a-1. Module b.PV : a-2. Module c.Solar Thermal - kWt Biomass Geothermal (Steam)

33 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Micro Hydro Development Issue (Barriers) 1.Location Difficult access due to remote locations. 2.Investment /Financial a.Investment cost is relatively high. b.Apprehension by the banks and project developers about very low returns on prospective micro hydropower investment c. Unavailability of credit facilities for low income communities to support productive uses of Micro Hydro 3.Human Resources Limited human resources in rural areas for plant management and operation.

34 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Micro Hydro Development Issue (Barriers) 4.Institutional & Policy a.National energy policies are not translated to specific localized guidelines, rules, and regulations. b.No integrated policy and program on micro hydropower generation and application c.Low local government capacity in developing comprehensive local energy planning. 5.Market & Technology a.No fully functional focal point for the provision of market development services for micro hydropower. b.Lack of effective technical human resource development program c.Insufficient implementation of community-based management approaches on micro hydropower development program.

35 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Micro Hydro Development Issue (Barriers) d. Limited local industrial capacity to support micro hydropower development, e.Lack of micro-hydropower equipment product standard & standardization program. 6.Information a.Insufficient information and dissemination of policies and regulations. b.Lack of documentation and publication of existing micro hydropower achievements. c.Lack of up-to-date information on micro hydropower resources.

36 Sustainable Energy – S2 Gas Management Thanks


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