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Newton’s Laws Review

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Concept! In which of the following scenarios is the net force on an object 0? A car breaking to a stop. A skydiver falling at a constant rate. A moon orbiting a planet. A hammer falling freely on the moon.

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Solve! A skier with a mass of 60 kg is accelerating at a rate of 3 m/s2 down a slope. Ignore air resistance and friction. Calculate the angle of the slope. If a skier is going down the same slope with a constant speed, what is the frictional force? What is the coefficient of friction?

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Quick! 7. Two blocks of masses 1.0 kg and 2.0 kg, respectively, are pushed by a constant applied force F across a horizontal frictionless table with constant acceleration such that the blocks remain in contact with each other, as shown above. The 1.0 kg block pushes the 2.0 kg block with a force of 2.0 N. The acceleration of the two blocks is (A) 0 (B) 1.0 m/s2 (C) 1.5 m/s2 (D) 2.0 m/s2 (E) 3.0 m/s2

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Gogogo!!!!!!! A block of mass 2 kg is suspended from a rope, as shown. If the tension in the rope is 10 N, the acceleration of the block is most nearly (A) zero (B) 2 m/s2 up (C) 2 m/s2 down (D) 5 m/s2 up (E) 5 m/s2 down

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Concept! Which of the following best describes the force that holds a nucleus together? (A) A gravitational force (B) An electrical force (C) A magnetic force (D) A short-range, high-magnitude force (E) A centrifugal force

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Think about it! A ball is tossed straight up and later returns to the point from which it was launched. If the ball is subject to air resistance as well as gravity, which of the following statements is correct? (A) The speed at which the ball returns to the point of launch is less than its speed when it was initially launched. (B) The time for the ball to fall is the same as the time for the ball to rise. (C) The force of air resistance is directed downward both when the ball is rising and when it is falling. (D) The net work done by air resistance on the ball during its flight is zero. (E) The net work done by gravity on the ball during its flight is greater than zero.

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Boxes! (4 min) Beginning at time t = 0, a student exerts a horizontal force on a box of mass 30 kg, causing it to move at 1.2 m/s toward an elevator door located 16 m away, as shown above. The coefficient of kinetic friction μk between the box and the floor is 0.20. (a) On the dot below that represents the box, draw and label the forces (not components) that act on the box as it moves at constant speed. • (b) Calculate the magnitude of the horizontal force the student must exert on the box in order to keep it moving at 1.2 m/s.

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Boxes! (8 min) At t = 4.0 s, the elevator door opens and remains open for 5.0 s. The student immediately exerts a larger constant force on the box and the front of the box reaches the elevator door just as it starts to close. (c) Calculate the magnitude of the new force that the student exerts. (d) Sketch graphs of the acceleration a, velocity u , and position x of the box versus time t between t = 0 and the time the front of the box reaches the elevator.

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