Presentation on theme: "Towards an inclusive strategy for languages Some considerations from a Scottish perspective Richard Johnstone 28/09/05."— Presentation transcript:
Towards an inclusive strategy for languages Some considerations from a Scottish perspective Richard Johnstone 28/09/05
Scotland Partnership agreement (2003) Cultural Commission Report (2005) Little likelihood of MLs featuring in either Scottish Executive SEED (schools) Ent/Trans/LLL (FE/HE/skills agenda) SEED policy for languages Citizens of a Multilingual World (schools only) But only partially implemented Unlikely to be an inclusive NLS for Scotland
Scotland MLs in Scottish HE very similar to elsewhere in UK: very difficult (c.f. Kelly & Jones; HF) MLs in Scottish FE: Very thin (Doughty, 2005) MLs at school holding up better than elsewhere in UK MLPS much more advanced Less drop-out in S3-S4, but now threatened by defective interpretation of ‘ entitlement ’ Similar problem of low uptake post S4
Scotland: Prelim Conclusion Recent policies have brought very large numbers at school to elementary level of proficiency but decreasing numbers to higher level of proficiency Latter point rather like HE? (Because of relative demise of Single/Joint Hons in particular languages) Businesses do want languages capacity but often at high level, and education system not delivering this, so they go for NS.
A NLS should include All sectors of society, including all sectors of Education All languages, based on the assumption of their inter-relatedness and one underlying unitary competence All levels of learner What Country X can do for its languages What its languages can do for Country X, and what incentives Country X will offer to make this happen
Policy Framework SOCIETALPROVISIONPROCESSINDIVIDUAL Political will Media Business need TL exposure Attitudes to other cultures Status of particular languages Time Intensity Resources Staffing ICT Equipment Policy Support CPD Range of languages Teaching Learning Thinking SLA Management Evaluation Quality Assurance Marketing Recruitment Gender Social class Ethnicity Prior languages Styles Strategies Aptitude Attitudes Motivation Self-esteem L1 literacy
Possible Policy Outcomes INDIVIDUALS TL proficiency TL attainments Citizenship Intercultural competence Attitudes / Aspirations Motivation Identity Employability Transferable skills SOCIETY National capacity Economic competitiveness International economic & social collaboration Quality of life Internal inclusion (diversity) International image Depth of other-culture understanding
Possible Policy Objectives To increase the numbers of good students talking languages through upper secondary and going on to HE to study them further. To raise the general levels of proficiency & intercultural awareness across all learners in order to enable students to exercise their fundamental right to mobility as EU citizens and to match the needs of business. To maximise opportunities for learning 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th languages, including those that are mainly non-European.
Scotland: Languages & Business Difficulty of persuading Scottish Executive (Ent/Trans/LLL) that there is a problem.
Some Findings from UK Business (BCC Survey of 1000 companies, 2004) Exports £ million USA28,825 Irld12,221 Austral2,292 Germany20,801 France18, 880 N ’ lands13,596 Italy8,601 Imports £ million USA22,828 Irld9,909 Austral1,777 Germany33,628 France20,222 N ’ lands16,673 Italy11,46
Languages & Careers Project 146 respondents from Scotland Mainly in age-group People who have found some value in learning and using an additional language in and around their work Our Languages Ambassadors
Range of Languages FrenchSpanish GermanRussian ItalianJapanese GaelicSwedish PortugueseMandarin CzechDutch PolishFlemish NorwegianCatalan HungarianSlovak SlovenianUkranian SerbianBulgarian RomanianGreek UrduPanjabi ArabicDanish
Range of careers Translator Flamenco dancer TV producer in Hungary Company owner International officer for Scottish local authority Employee in German-owned company International trade adviser Employee at international conference centre Employee of Swedish company dealing with German clients Events manager for destination management company Criminal lawyer
Range of careers cntd Receptionist in a Scottish university Classical musician International rugby player Head of an events company Director of tour company International trade adviser Employee in publicity department of Arsenal football club Head of communications company
Languages & Business Languages are good for employability Languages are not used extensively for business in instrumental sense But languages are valued by surprising numbers in world of work for variety of personal as well as professional reasons
Positive examples: Schools Early partial immersion in French Primary school in Aberdeen in area of multiple social disadvantage Maximises the key factors of ‘ time ’ and ‘ intensity ’ Very impressive receptive proficiency Impact on inclusion and sense of self (in family as well as individuals) as well as on TL proficiency Need to follow-through at secondary
Positive examples: Schools PiE: 29 secondary schools (3 LAs) Active,everyday virtual & real community Film-making weekends International debates Two websites, including evening access to live teacher for support & advice Positive impact on: Students ’ sense of ‘ ideal self ’ ( ‘ A life- transforming experience ’ ) Levels of national examination attainment Trickle-down effect of positive motivation on younger students Throughput to languages in HE
Positive Examples: All levels Increasing body of good research on ICT and languages Seems to have potential for positive impact on: Creation of new international, intercultural communities Motivation, attitudes, strategies Key aspects of proficiency, e.g. reading; vocabulary; metalinguistic awareness; grammatical knowledge.
Examples of recent research articles on ICT and languages The role of tasks in promoting intercultural learning in electronic learning networks The effectiveness of computer-assisted metalinguistic instruction: A case-study in Japanese Web-based activities and SLA: a conversation analysis research approach Intercultural learning through video-conferencing: a pilot exchange project Negotiation in cyberspace: The role of chatting in the development of grammatical competence Web-based language testing Comparability of conventional and computerized tests of reading in a second language
Examples of recent research articles on ICT and languages Discourse functions and syntactic complexity in synchronous and asynchronous communication Cross-cultural learning through computer-mediated communication Tandem learning through from motivation to autonomy Japanese and American students meet on the web: collaborative language learning through everyday dialogue with peers Technically speaking: transforming language learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs) (Multiple user domains object-oriented)
Examples of recent research articles on ICT and languages Designing task-based instruction to promote interaction The web as a vehicle for constructivist approaches in language teaching Second language vocabulary acquisition and learning strategies in ICALL environments Realizing constructivist objectives through collaborative technologies: threaded discussions Synchronous on-line exchanges: a study of modification devices on non-native discourse IRC Francais: The creation of an internet-based SLA community Supporting listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in French with multimedia annotations
Examples of recent research articles on ICT and languages Evaluating tandem language learning in the MOO: discourse repair strategies in a bilingual internet project Enhancing learners ’ communication skills through synchronous electronic interaction and task-based instruction The effect of synchronous and asynchronous CMC on oral performance in German
What can CILT UK do to help? Collaborate further with LLAS and other HE/FE bodies Make public statements to media in joint name of the four Directors Use our governmental links to influence political will, civil servants Conduct / Support surveys covering key factors (societal, provision, process, individual) and publish reports