2Where did medical terminology come from? Most come from Greek or LatinAs medicine advanced, more modern terms have come from German, French and EnglishGenerally medical terms for determining illness or describing surgery have Greek origins.Terms for parts of the body generally have Latin roots.
3Sample Medical RecordMrs Gravelle is an 80 year old female with deteriorating general health. She suffers with the following chronic conditions: blepharitis, which occludes her vision at time; angiocele of coronary vessels causing a tachycardia between frequent episodes of epistaxis. Current complaints include SOB and congestion of the sinus and chest area. Bilateral rales are present, nares are inflamed with profuse rhinorrhea. Rx is BR, antibiotics QiD, 240 cc of cl liq Q1hr. Decongestant Q4h and PRN.s
4Pronounciation of medical terms ch is sometimes pronounced like a k Examples: chemoreceptor, chronicps is pronounced like s Examples: psychiatry, psychologypn is pronounced with only the n sound Examples: pneumonia, pneumogastricc and g are given the soft sound of s and j respectively Examples: cell, cilia, genetics, Giardiaae and oe are pronounced ee Examples: fasciae, coelomi at the end of a word is pronounced eye (to form a plural) Examples: alveoli, glomerulies when forming the final letters of a word, is often pronounced as a separate syllable Example: nares (nah’reez)
5Medical Word PartsPrefix: Beginning part of a word preceding the word root.Example: peri-Root: Central part and determines the meaning of a word.Example: cardi-Suffix: Last part of the word that changes its meaning.Example: -itisCombining A root with an added vowel for easier pronunciation.Form Example: rhin/o
6Common Abbreviations Cath. NPO am, AM B/P bid fx hs IV lab Spec. Hyper ROMCPR po w/cPc qhs qid, QIDq Pt, pt amt.Q2h I & O dcqod, QOD post CA
7Abbreviations (continued) ss c OPDpm, PM postop bm, BMBR, br O2 CBCax stat sc/o wt dxht cc ambliq. BRP H2OOOB, oob noct, noc.
8ExamplesPlease write the following situation out in whole words/no abbreviations:58 y/o male c/o SOB and fever. Upon arrival to ED his VS are as follows: T P 115 R 30 BP 102/60 and and O2 at 85%. Pt. w/hx of COPD, URI, Lung CA, CHF and DM. Orders are as follows: stat CXR, stat CBC, adm O2 at 2l/min and start IV of 125ml/h. Admit to med unit, DM diet, VS Q4h, BR w/BRP
9Examples Write the following sentences in abbreviated format: 20 milliequivalent of potassium chloride by mouth four times a day before meals.Temperature, pulse and respirations every 6hoursEight ounces of magnesium citrate every four hours until BMComplete bedrest until blood pressure less than 145 three timesAdmit to Coronary Care Unit, electrocardiogram immedately, blood work to be done: complete blood count, blood/urea/nitrogen; vital signs every four hours
10PrefixesSyllable or word placed at the beginning tells the how, why, where, when, how much, how many, direction, time.Examples:Pre means beforeTachy means fast
11Prefixes Continued Brady means slow Hemi means half These are just a few examples. These prefixes combined with root words and suffixes make up terms that describe human anatomy, organ systems, clinical and diagnostic imaging, lab testing, together with clinical procedures, surgeries and diagnoses.
12Word RootsDefinition: Main words or parts to which prefixes and suffixes can be added.By learning basic prefixes, suffixes, and word roots, you will frequently be able to interpret the meaning of a word even when you have never before seen the wordIn the example appendicitis, the word root is appendix. By adding the prefix pseudo, which means “false,” and the suffix itis, which means “inflammation,” the word becomes pseudoappendicitis. This is interpreted as a “false inflammation of the appendix.”
13Word Roots ContinuedWhen prefixes, suffixes, and/or word roots are joined together, vowels are frequently added. Common examples include a, e, i, ia, io, o and u. The vowels are not used if the word root or suffix begins with a vowel.Example: encephal (o) means brain. When it is combined with itis, meaning inflammation of, the vowel is not used for encephalitis. When it is combined with gram, meaning tracing or record, the vowel “o” is added for encephalogram.
14Word Roots ContinuedExample: hepat (o) means liver. When it is combined with itis, the vowel is not used for hepatitis. When it is combined with megaly, meaning enlarged, the vowel “o” is added for hepatomegaly.Other examples:Peri Cardi/o Ectomy = Pericardiectomy which is the surgical removal of a portion of the membrane surrounding the heart.
15Word Roots ContinuedCrani otomy = craniotomy crani means pertaining to the skull, otomy means cutting into. Craniotomy is surgical opening into the skullLeuko cyte = leukocyte leuko means whit, cyte means cell. Leukocyte is a white cellPara plegia = paraplegia para means lower half of body, plegia means paralysis. Paraplegia is paralysis of the legs and lower body.
16SuffixesDefined as a syllable or word placed at the end of a word. The ending part of a word that modifies the meaning of the word.Examples:ology-study of, science of; Biologylysis-destruction, dissolving of; Autolysisosis-condition, state, process; Osteoporosis
17Pulling it All Together It is impossible to memorize all of the words of a medical dictionary that are used in health occupations.By breaking these words into parts, however, it is sometimes possible to figure out their meanings.In order to communicate effectively, health care workers must be familiar with common abbreviations and terminology.
18Bringing Root Words and Suffixes Together Examples:neuralgia cardiomalaciahysterectomy hepatomegalymammogram biologistanemia carcinomacarditis rhinorrheathrombolysis necrosiscolostomy cardiomyopathy
19Bringing Root Words and Suffixes together Examples continued:osteopenia myospasmthrombolysis
20BellWork for Monday 1/27When you see the statement “What word elements are used to form common health care terms and abbreviations?” What do you think the term elements means? How would you explain it in terms of medical use?
21Bell Ringer for Thursday A patient has just had a thoracotomy. Where would you find a surgical wound on this patient?BackLower legNeckChest
22Bell Ringer for Thursday Which of the following would be a normal complaint of a marathon runner?NephrosisMyalgiaHematuriaHydrocephalus
23Bell Ringer for FridayWhat is the most likely reason to perform a mastectomy?Breast CancerFractureHepatitisLigament Strain
24Bell Ringer for Tuesday-Root Word If a patient has had a cerebrovascular accident, what part of their body has been affected?
25Bell Ringer for Friday-Prefixes What do you think a patient with hypoglycemia is suffering from?
26Bell Ringer for Tuesday-Root Word If a patient has had a cerebrovascular accident, what part of their body has been affected?
27Bell Ringer for Thursday-Abbrev. Write following orders as abbreviations:Immediate electrocardiogram, vital signs every 2 hours, 30 cubic centimeters of cough syrup by mouth as needed or whenever necessary
28QuestionsJoe has kidney stones, he should see a: gastroenterologist, pathologist, nephrologist or neurologistWhat prefix means before: pre, semi, sub, tachyIf a patient is turned q2h, how many times will the patient be turned during an 8hour shift? 2,4,8,16What instrument would a doctor use to examine the urinary bladder? Gastroscope, proctoscope, otoscope or cystoscopeWhat prefix means slow: brady, anti, bi, dys
29Questions Continued:What health professional would use an opthalmascope? Dentist, xray technician, a foot doctor, an eye doctorWhat prefix means half? Hemi, contra, tachy, contraMaria has osteoporosis. She needs to see a doctor who specializes in the study of the : skin, bones, eyes or lungs.Kate complained of upper abdominal pain immediately after eating spicy food. She most likely has: arteriosclerosis, spelnomegaly, gastritis or nephrosis
30Questions ContinuedPhysicians believe that Fatima may have septicemia. What would be tested to confirm the diagnosis: sputum, blood, urine, spinal fluidChris was hit by a baseball and needs a rhinoplasty. He was hit in the: stomach, chest, face, pelvisWhat root word means ear: chem, erythro, neuro, otoWhat suffix means removal of: algia, ectomy, ology, stasisWhich of the following is symptom of pericarditis: bloody urine, chest pain, difficulty swallowing or headache