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Cell respiration Definition: The series of chemical reactions in cells which oxidize food energy (Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) into cell energy (ATP)

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Presentation on theme: "Cell respiration Definition: The series of chemical reactions in cells which oxidize food energy (Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) into cell energy (ATP)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell respiration Definition: The series of chemical reactions in cells which oxidize food energy (Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) into cell energy (ATP) and heat; may occur with or without O2 being used as the terminal electron acceptor (aerobically or anaerobically) General equation: Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat

2 The “bottom line” of cell respiration is the production of ATP (cell energy) ATP can be produced in 1 of 3 ways: 1)Substrate-level phosphorylation: Essentially, Food-P + ADP  food + ATP 2) Oxidative phosphorylation: Occurs as NADH2 and FADH2 relay e-’s to an ETC, setting up an electrochemical gradient of H+’s which is relieved by ATPase which uses kinetic energy of proton flow to form ATP from ADP + Pi 3) Photophosphorylation: during photosynthesis

3 Substrate-level phosphorylation -occurs during the rxns of Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle

4 Oxidative Phosphorylation: occurs during the rxns of the Electron Transport Chain along inner membrane (cristae) of the mitochondrion

5 The complete oxidation of food Aerobic respiration Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy Equation: Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy The above set of reactions occur in 4 distinct steps: 1)Glycolysis – splits 6-C glucose into 2 X 3-C pyruvic acids (pyruvates) 2)Pyruvate oxidation – removes 1 C from each pyruvate to form 2 X 2-C acetyl groups which may enter the rxns of the Krebs Cycle 3)Krebs Cycle – cyclical series of rxns which break down each of the 2-C acetyl groups into 2 CO2 4)Electron Transport Chain – electron carrying coenzymes relay their e-’s to a series of electron carrying proteins to O2 setting up an electrochemical gradient which is relieved through ATPase which transforms the kinetic energy of proton flow into ATP formation

6 During each step of the process, energy is released!! In Glycolysis: 4 total ATP’s are formed (yet, there is only a net gain of 2 ATP’s) and 2 NAD coenzymes are reduced to NADH2 In Pyruvate oxidation: 2 NADH2’s are produced In the Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP’s are formed, 6 NADH2’s are produced, and 2 FADH2’s In Electron Transport: 32 ATP’s are formed as 10 NADH2’s and 2 FADH2’s are oxidized back to NAD+ and FAD+ and recycled back to the system and re-used

7 ETC

8 The reactions of cell respiration: Glycolysis

9 The reactions of cell respiration: Pyruvate oxidation

10 The reactions of cell respiration: the Krebs Cycle

11 the Electron Transport Chain

12 Overview of aerobic respiration General equation: glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy Glucose is oxidized (broken down) to form 6 CO2 E-’s stripped away from glucose are relayed to ETC by NAD+ and FAD+ coenzymes and accepted by O2 O2 is the terminal electron acceptor ETC relays e-’s and pumps H+’s (protons) [H+] outside of ETC membrane is relieved by ATPase H+’s flow through ATPase ATPase transforms kinetic flow of H+’s into bond between ADP and P


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