2Outline▪ Glycolysis▪ Citric Acid Cycle▪ Electron transport chain
3Metabolism▪ Metabolism consists of all the chemical reactions that take place in a cell.▪ Aerobic cellular respiration requires oxygen and produces carbon dioxide.▪ Anaerobic fermentation does not require oxygen.
10Transition reaction ▪ Phase 2: Transition reaction ▪ It occurs within the mitochondria.▪ Coenzyme A combines with pyruvate to form acetyl CoA and CO2.▪ Forms 2 Acetyl CoA molecules and 2 NADH and 2 CO2.
15Electron transport chain ▪ Phase 4: Electron transport chain▪ Electrons of FADH2 and NADH are transferred from one protein to another until they reach oxygen, the ultimate electron acceptor.▪ Releases energy that results in 32 ATP.▪ Requires oxygen.Typically, 3 ATP per NADH and 2 ATP per FADH2
16Electron transport chain: electron carriers and acceptor ▪ NADH and FADH2 are important carriers of electrons.▪ They donate electrons to the electron transport chain.▪ At the end of the chain, oxygen accepts the electrons.
17Electron transport chain ▪ When electrons go from one protein to another, it loses energy, which is lost as heat and also allows the membrane complexes I, III, and IV to pump protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space.▪ This creates a gradient that allows protons to go back through complex V, ATP Synthase, and this is what ultimately produces energy.
20How ATP is made using the ETC In the mitochondria, the NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to the electron transport chain.Oxygen is the final electron acceptor from the ETC.The ETC uses the energy from the electrons to transport protons (H+) against the concentration gradient (matrix to the intermembrane space of the mitochondria).
21How ATP is made using the ETC 4. The ATP synthase transports the hydrogen ions back to the lumen of the mitochondria.5. The hydrogen ions go through the ATP synthase, and this movement provides energy to catalyze the reaction of ADP + Pi ATP.
22Summary of cellular respiration ▪ One molecule of glucose is broken down and 36 ATP molecules are generated.▪ Oxygen is used by the electron transport chain
23Summary of cellular respiration (aerobic) ▪ Glycolysis starts the process in the cytoplasm by breaking apart the glucose molecule. It produces 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules.▪ Next, it goes to the mitochondria to undergo the transition reaction, which produces 2 CO2, 2 NADH, and 2 Acetyl CoA molecules.▪ And then the 2 Acetyl CoA molecules go into the citric acid cycle to produce 2 ATP, 4 CO2, 2 FADH2, and 6 NADH.
24Summary of cellular respiration (aerobic) ▪ Finally, the electron donors pass the electrons through a series of proteins. Some of the proteins pump hydrogen ions from the matric into the intermembrane space. And then the hydrogen ions flow back down the concentration gradient through ATP synthase, and this in turn produces ATP.▪ One glucose can produce a total of 36 ATP.
26Not just glucose!▪ Other molecules can undergo energy production. They just enter at different stages of cellular respiration.
27Anaerobic respiration ▪ Sometimes organisms, including humans, need to produce energy without using oxygen.▪ When you need energy quick (such as during exercise), or if there is not enough oxygen, then the cell will still undergo glycolysis. But it won’t undergo the other steps of aerobic cellular respiration (Citric Acid cycle and ETC).
28Anaerobic respiration: fermentation ▪ Breakdown of glucose without oxygen.▪ Takes place entirely in the cytoplasm.▪ It is very inefficient, resulting in only two ATP.
29Anaerobic respiration: fermentation ▪ When cells need energy quick, they will use this pathway for a short time.▪ 2 pyruvic acid + 2 NADH 2 lactate + 2 NAD+▪ End result is lactate and NAD+, in addition to the 2 ATP produced from glycolysis.