Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 4 Pattern Recognition Concepts: Introduction & ROC Analysis.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Pattern Recognition Concepts: Introduction & ROC Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Pattern Recognition Concepts: Introduction & ROC Analysis

2 Terms Class Class object prototype object prototype set of objects having some important common properties set of objects having some important common properties Class label Class label a class in which an object belongs a class in which an object belongs

3 Terms Classification Classification process of matching an object instance to a particular class process of matching an object instance to a particular class process that assigns a label to an object according to some representation of the object’s properties process that assigns a label to an object according to some representation of the object’s properties

4 Terms Classifier Classifier device or algorithm that inputs an object representation and outputs a class label device or algorithm that inputs an object representation and outputs a class label Reject class Reject class generic class for objects that cannot be placed in any of the designated known classes generic class for objects that cannot be placed in any of the designated known classes

5 Overall system sensor  feature extractor  classifier sensor  feature extractor  classifier Why not the following:sensor  classifier? Why not the following:sensor  classifier?

6 Ex. NN classifier

7 Phases 1. Training 2. Testing 3. Application/use Training and testing sets should be disjoint. Training and testing sets should be disjoint.

8 Testing Classification error = misclassification Classification error = misclassification Empirical error rate = % misclassified Empirical error rate = % misclassified Empirical reject rate = % rejected Empirical reject rate = % rejected

9 Testing Training set Training set Sample data for which truth is known Sample data for which truth is known Used to develop classifier Used to develop classifier Independent test data Independent test data Sample data Sample data Not part of training set Not part of training set Sampled from a real population Sampled from a real population

10 Two-class problems Good or bad? Good or bad? Present or absent? Present or absent? Diseased or not? Diseased or not?

11

12 Evaluating errors Different costs are associated with different errors! Different costs are associated with different errors! Ex. Mammography Ex. Mammography Say 99% of population N.A.D. (no apparent disease). Say 99% of population N.A.D. (no apparent disease). So if we say “no disease,” we’ll be correct 99% of the time! So if we say “no disease,” we’ll be correct 99% of the time! But the cost is great (death) if we are wrong! But the cost is great (death) if we are wrong! So let’s say disease is always present. So let’s say disease is always present. We’ll be wrong 99% of the time! We’ll be wrong 99% of the time! We’ll need to follow up with biopsy. We’ll need to follow up with biopsy. We’ll inflict psychological stress on the patient. We’ll inflict psychological stress on the patient.

13 ROC ANALYSIS

14 ROC Analysis “The ROC curve was first developed by electrical engineers and radar engineers during World War II for detecting enemy objects in battle fields and was soon introduced to psychology to account for perceptual detection of stimuli.” – from

15 ROC Analysis “ROC analysis since then has been used in medicine, radiology, biometrics, and other areas for many decades and is increasingly used in machine learning and data mining research.” – from

16 ROC Analysis History “The ROC curve was first used during World War II for the analysis of radar signals before it was employed in signal detection theory. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States army began new research to increase the prediction of correctly detected Japanese aircraft from their radar signals.” – from

17 ROC Analysis History “In the 1950s, ROC curves were employed in psychophysics to assess human (and occasionally non- human animal) detection of weak signals. In medicine, ROC analysis has been extensively used in the evaluation of diagnostic tests. ROC curves are also used extensively in epidemiology and medical research and are frequently mentioned in conjunction with evidence-based medicine. In radiology, ROC analysis is a common technique to evaluate new radiology techniques. In the social sciences, ROC analysis is often called the ROC Accuracy Ratio, a common technique for judging the accuracy of default probability models.” – from

18 ROC Analysis History “ROC curves also proved useful for the evaluation of machine learning techniques. The first application of ROC in machine learning was by Spackman who demonstrated the value of ROC curves in comparing and evaluating different classification algorithms.” – from

19 ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve analysis We are given a number of test cases for which we know the “truth.” We are given a number of test cases for which we know the “truth.” For a single t (decision threshold) setting, we can calculate (test our method for) TP, TN, FP, and FN. For a single t (decision threshold) setting, we can calculate (test our method for) TP, TN, FP, and FN. TP = true positive= present and detected TP = true positive= present and detected TN = true negative= not present and not detected TN = true negative= not present and not detected FP = false positive= not present but detected FP = false positive= not present but detected FN = false negative= present but not detected FN = false negative= present but not detected TP+TN+FP+FN = # of normals and abnormals in our study population. TP+TN+FP+FN = # of normals and abnormals in our study population.

20 Defn. accuracy TP+TN+FP+FN = # of normals (TN+FP), and abnormals (TP+FN) in our study population. TP+TN+FP+FN = # of normals (TN+FP), and abnormals (TP+FN) in our study population. Accuracy = (TP+TN) / (TP+TN+FP+FN) Accuracy = (TP+TN) / (TP+TN+FP+FN) But this is greatly influenced by target (or disease) prevalence. But this is greatly influenced by target (or disease) prevalence.

21 Problems w/ accuracy Ex. Mammography Ex. Mammography The disease occurs < 1%. The disease occurs < 1%. So let a trained monkey always say there is no disease (without even looking at the film/image)! So let a trained monkey always say there is no disease (without even looking at the film/image)! Our monkey’s accuracy is (0+99)/( ) = 99% without even going to medical school! Our monkey’s accuracy is (0+99)/( ) = 99% without even going to medical school! We need a different measure! We need a different measure!

22 ROC analysis True Positive Fraction True Positive Fraction TPF = TP / (TP+FN) TPF = TP / (TP+FN) also called sensitivity also called sensitivity true abnormals called abnormal by the observer true abnormals called abnormal by the observer False Positive Fraction False Positive Fraction FPF = FP / (FP+TN) FPF = FP / (FP+TN) Specificity = TN / (TN+FP) Specificity = TN / (TN+FP) True normals called normal by the observer True normals called normal by the observer FPF = 1 - specificity FPF = 1 - specificity

23 ROC analysis True Positive Fraction True Positive Fraction TPF = TP / (TP+FN) TPF = TP / (TP+FN) also called sensitivity also called sensitivity true abnormals called abnormal by the observer true abnormals called abnormal by the observer False Positive Fraction False Positive Fraction FPF = FP / (FP+TN) FPF = FP / (FP+TN) Specificity = TN / (TN+FP) Specificity = TN / (TN+FP) True normals called normal by the observer True normals called normal by the observer FPF = 1 - specificity FPF = 1 - specificity

24

25 Evaluating classifiers (via their ROC curves) Classifier A can’t distinguish between normal and abnormal. B is better but makes some mistakes. C makes very few mistakes.

26 “Perfect” means no false positives and no false negatives.

27 ROC analysis ROC = receiver operator/operating characteristic/curve ROC = receiver operator/operating characteristic/curve

28 ROC analysis Positive predictive value Positive predictive value PPV = TP / (TP+FP) (TPF = TP / (TP+FN)) PPV = TP / (TP+FP) (TPF = TP / (TP+FN)) Probability that the patient is actually abnormal when the observer says that the patient is abnormal. Probability that the patient is actually abnormal when the observer says that the patient is abnormal. Negative predictive value Negative predictive value NPV = TN / (TN+FN) (Specificity = TN / (TN+FP)) NPV = TN / (TN+FN) (Specificity = TN / (TN+FP)) Probability that the patient is actually normal when the observer says that the patient is normal. Probability that the patient is actually normal when the observer says that the patient is normal.

29 ROC EXAMPLE

30 ROC example “Pneumoconiosis (PNC) is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines.” – from wikipedia “Pneumoconiosis (PNC) is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines.” – from wikipedia FEV = Forced Expiratory Volume (how much air the individual can expel/exhale) FEV = Forced Expiratory Volume (how much air the individual can expel/exhale) How good is FEV at indicating PNC? How good is FEV at indicating PNC?

31 ROC example FEV = Forced Expiratory Volume (how much air the individual can expel/exhale) FEV is our measured “feature.”

32 For those with PNC, mean FEV was 68. For those without PNC, mean was 86.

33 FEV values for those with and without PNC. Counts of those with and without PNC for various FEV ranges.... What’s this called?

34

35 ROC example We will now set a threshold on our feature (FEV), and calculate our 2x2 matrix. We will now set a threshold on our feature (FEV), and calculate our 2x2 matrix. Let t=80%, and n=normal FEV (FEV of healthy person of same age and height). Let t=80%, and n=normal FEV (FEV of healthy person of same age and height). If the FEV

36 ROC example TP FP

37 ROC example From this, we get a single point on the ROC curve. For t=80%, sensitivity = 22/27 = 81% and specificity = 8/13 = 62%. From this, we get a single point on the ROC curve. For t=80%, sensitivity = 22/27 = 81% and specificity = 8/13 = 62%. Do the same for t=40% and t=115% and plot the results. Do the same for t=40% and t=115% and plot the results.

38 ROC example What does this line represent? What does the area under this curve mean?

39 ANOTHER ROC EXAMPLE

40 Another ROC example Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone or thyrotropin) levels are the “gold standard.” TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone or thyrotropin) levels are the “gold standard.” How good are blood levels of T4 (thyroxine) at predicting hypothyroidism? How good are blood levels of T4 (thyroxine) at predicting hypothyroidism?

41 Another ROC example Using measured TSH levels as the “gold standard,” we obtained the following results: Using measured TSH levels as the “gold standard,” we obtained the following results: T4 value Hypothyroid Euthyroid (normal) 5 or less or more 3 39 Totals: 32 93

42 Another ROC example

43 ROC and hypothyroidism 1. We can say T4 5 is normal. 2. We can say T4 7 is normal. 3. We can say T4 =9 is normal. Calculate the sensitivity and specificity of each.

44 ROC and hypothyroidism 1. Let T4 5 be normal. Calculate the sensitivity (true abnormals called abnormal by the observer): Calculate the sensitivity (true abnormals called abnormal by the observer): TPF = TP / (TP+FN) = 18 / ( ) = 18/32 = 0.56 TPF = TP / (TP+FN) = 18 / ( ) = 18/32 = 0.56 T4 value Hypothyroid Euthyroid 5 or less or more 3 39 Totals: FNs TPs

45 ROC and hypothyroidism 1. Let T4 5 be normal. Calculate the specificity (true normals called normal by the observer) =TN / (TN+FP) = ( ) / ( ) = 92 / 93 = 0.99 Calculate the specificity (true normals called normal by the observer) =TN / (TN+FP) = ( ) / ( ) = 92 / 93 = 0.99 T4 value Hypothyroid Euthyroid 5 or less or more 3 39 Totals: TNs TNs + FPs FPs

46 ROC and hypothyroidism Cutpoint (t) Sensitivity Specificity Cutpoint (t) True Positives FalsePosRate specificity


Download ppt "Chapter 4 Pattern Recognition Concepts: Introduction & ROC Analysis."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google