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April 28, 2014 – Chemical signals and hormones II Announcements: Lab this week will meet in the computer labs Final Exam: May 15 ICES evaluation 1.Pre-lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "April 28, 2014 – Chemical signals and hormones II Announcements: Lab this week will meet in the computer labs Final Exam: May 15 ICES evaluation 1.Pre-lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 28, 2014 – Chemical signals and hormones II Announcements: Lab this week will meet in the computer labs Final Exam: May 15 ICES evaluation 1.Pre-lecture quiz 2.Review of cell-to-cell signaling & thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) 3.Specificity 1.Lipid soluble hormones – Steroids 2.G-coupled protein receptors – 3.Tyrosine kinase receptors 4.Hormone-mediated physiological tradeoffs

2 Neuroendocrine pathway Neuroendocrine signal Endocrine pathwayNeuroendocrine-to-endocrine pathway Neuroendocrine signal Endocrine signal Endocrine signal Endocrine cell Effector cell Response Stimulus Feedback inhibition Sensor cell Effector cell Feedback inhibition Neural signal CNS Stimulus Sensor cell Neural signal CNS Response Effector cell Endocrine cell Endocrine systems are regulated by negative feedback

3 Steroids Cortisol Epinephrine Amino Acid Derivatives Receptor Secretin Peptides and Polypeptides Receptor Target cell Most not lipid soluble; bind to receptors on surface of target cell Not lipid soluble; bind to receptors on surface of target cell Lipid soluble; bind to receptors inside target cell Chemical characteristics of hormones – major classes

4 Hormone Transport and Action on Target

5 Hydrophobic messengers pass into cell where they bind with transcription factors which affect gene expression.

6 Hydrophilic hormones bind to a receptor on the cell membrane which causes several reactions known as a signal transduction pathway. This can affect the properties of enzymes/proteins, etc. or it may affect gene expression.

7 Thyroid Hormone Thyroid hormone: - Actually two hormones (T3/T4) Mammals mainly secrete T4 - but some T4 is converted under certain circumstances - Same receptor binds both, but ↑affinity for T3 T3/T4 are membrane soluble - ↑metabolism in muscles, heart, liver & kidney T4T3

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9 Figure 47-8 T3T3 Juvenile frog (tadpole) T3T3 Locomotion Respiration Excretion Nutrition Swim via movements of muscular tail Gas exchange occurs in gills, across skin, and in lungs Most are herbivorous; have a long gut specialized for digesting algae and plants Most nitrogenous wastes excreted as ammonia Adult frog Locomotion Respiration Nutrition Excretion Gas exchange occurs across skin, and in lungs Tailless; walk or hop Most nitrogenous wastes excreted as urea Most are carnivorous; have a large mouth or long tongue for catching prey; short gut specialized for digesting proteins

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11 Thyroid hormone levels go up as flat fish go through this metamorphosis.

12 Anadromous versus Resident Stream Sticklebacks Higher metabolic rates Migrate from ocean to freshwater to breed Bigger Lower metabolic rates Permanent residents in freshwater Smaller

13 Take home message: The same hormone can have multiple physiological effects How do we explain this?

14 Altering individual behaviors by altering overall thyroid levels seems like a pretty blunt way to go about changing specific phenotypes. How could this system be fine-tuned to optimize specific traits under different contexts? A.) changes in TRH expression B.) changes in TSH expression C.) alterations of TSH receptors D.) alteration of T3/T4 receptors in specific cell types.

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16 Hormonal specificity: G-protein coupled receptors

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18 Hormonal specificity: Tyrosine kinase receptors

19 STEROID HORMONE ACTION Hormone receptor Steroid hormone Hormone- receptor complex Hormone- response element RNA polymerase DNA mRNA Nucleus Proteins Ribosome 3. Hormone-receptor complex enters nucleus and binds to DNA, induces start of transcription. 1. Steroid hormone enters target cell. 2. Hormone binds to receptor, induces conformational change. 4. Many mRNA transcripts are produced, amplifying the signal. 5. Each transcript is translated many times, further amplifying the signal. Hormonal specificity: Steroids and gene transcription

20 Hormone-mediated Tradeoffs: Interactions between stress, reproduction and immune function Extraordinary ordinary Junco:

21 Hormone-mediated Tradeoffs Interactions between stress, reproduction and immune function

22 Stress

23 Short-Term Stress Response “Fight or flight” response is stimulated by epinephrine

24 Figure 47-7a-hypothesis

25 Figure 47-7b-setup

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27 Some additional effects of the “fight or flight response 1.) Redirection of blood flow from the skin and digestive system toward heart, brain, and muscles. 2.) Relaxation vascular smooth muscle to aid in vasodilation Take home message: 1.) Short term stress responses are EXTREMELY beneficial over the short term. 2.) Prolonged stress responses can be harmful. *Radio Lab episode on stress:

28 Long term stress responses

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30 This graph shows the... a. Positive influence ACTH has on cortisol release b. Inhibitory feedback of cortisol on ACTH release

31 This graph shows the... a. Positive influence ACTH has on cortisol release b. Inhibitory feedback of cortisol on ACTH release

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33 ACTH also stimulates the release of aldosterone. Why should this be a part of the stress response?


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