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Living Single: The Effects of Domestic Capital Investments On Men’s Domestic Labor Participation Richard N Pitt, Jr. Vanderbilt University Department of.

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Presentation on theme: "Living Single: The Effects of Domestic Capital Investments On Men’s Domestic Labor Participation Richard N Pitt, Jr. Vanderbilt University Department of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Living Single: The Effects of Domestic Capital Investments On Men’s Domestic Labor Participation Richard N Pitt, Jr. Vanderbilt University Department of Sociology

2 1.Women do more housework than men, but only twice as much. Women average 26 hours per week, while men average 14 hours (NSFH1, 1987) 2.Both men’s ACTUAL and RELATIVE contributions to housework are growing. 1.Women do more housework than men, but only twice as much. Women average 26 hours per week, while men average 14 hours (NSFH1, 1987) 2.Both men’s ACTUAL and RELATIVE contributions to housework are growing. BROAD QUESTION: Why Do Men Do Housework? BROAD QUESTION: Why Do Men Do Housework? “Practice” Competence & Disposition

3 RELATIVE RESOURCES Education, age, income, occupational status, negative effects of possible divorce TIME AVAILABILITY Number of hours worked, number of small children, employments shifts (e.g., off between 5pm and 12am, no weekends) GENDER IDEOLOGY Traditional attitudes of respondent and spouse Functional Explanations Structural Explanations Cultural Explanations Common Explanations

4 Events Beyond Primary Socialization Can Act As Catalysts For Change In One’s Gender Role Ideology and Gendered Behavior Events Beyond Primary Socialization Can Act As Catalysts For Change In One’s Gender Role Ideology and Gendered Behavior “[Egalitarian, family-involved] men did not hold notably different outlooks in childhood than other men. Nor did their relationships with their mothers and fathers differ in significant ways. Instead these men developed more egalitarian outlooks in late adolescence and early adulthood when their early expectations clashed with real experiences” (Gerson 1993:161) “Leaving The Nest” Bachelorhood or Divorce Exit From Caregiver Institutions (e.g., College Dormitories, Military Barracks) “Leaving The Nest” Bachelorhood or Divorce Exit From Caregiver Institutions (e.g., College Dormitories, Military Barracks) LIFE-COURSE DISRUPTION New Considerations

5 LIVING SINGLE? What Do You Mean LIVING SINGLE? Men Living Single Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military “Leaving The Nest” Bachelorhood Divorce Exit From Caregiver Institutions (e.g., Military Barracks) “Leaving The Nest” Bachelorhood Divorce Exit From Caregiver Institutions (e.g., Military Barracks) Living At Home With Parents Living With A Girlfriend Living With A Spouse Living In A Military Setting Living At Home With Parents Living With A Girlfriend Living With A Spouse Living In A Military Setting Some Other Caregiver (In Most Cases Female) Is Doing The Five Primary Household Tasks

6 Men Living Single Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Practical knowledge and skills required for successful completion of household labor activities. This may include a positive disposition towards this kind of labor. Single Men Do Their Own Housework (South and Spitze 1994) Single Men Do Their Own Housework (South and Spitze 1994) What Is “Domestic Capital”? Single Men Gain Domestic Capital And Become More Competent At Doing Housework Single Men Gain Domestic Capital And Become More Competent At Doing Housework Single Men Come To Believe That Men Should Contribute To Household Chores (Pitt and Borland 2004) Single Men Come To Believe That Men Should Contribute To Household Chores (Pitt and Borland 2004) Some Single Men Marry.... THEN WHAT? Domestic Capital Accumulation

7 H2: The more years a man lives “single”, the fewer hours of housework his wife does, the fewer hours of housework there are to do, the more his share of the housework burden. EFFICIENCY HYPOTHESIS: He Does More Efficient Housework H1: The more years a man lives “single”, the more housework he does once married. SHARING HYPOTHESIS: He Does More Housework Men Living Single Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Number of Hours = Amount of Time Spent In Activity Number of Hours = Amount of Activity Done/ Measure Problem Hypotheses

8 Dataset: National Survey of Families and Households (2991 cases, only married men with spouse responses) Dependent Variable: Respondent’s total hours spent on housework, his wife’s total hours spent on housework, and the total number of hours the couple spends on housework Independent Variable: Number of years he has lived without a wife, a cohabiting girlfriend, or his parents prior to the current marriage. Theoretical Controls: Relative resources (4 measures), time availability (5 measures), and gender ideology (2 measures) Other Controls: Include father’s education, whether his mother worked, how religious he is, his age, his years of education, his income, and nine others. Dataset: National Survey of Families and Households (2991 cases, only married men with spouse responses) Dependent Variable: Respondent’s total hours spent on housework, his wife’s total hours spent on housework, and the total number of hours the couple spends on housework Independent Variable: Number of years he has lived without a wife, a cohabiting girlfriend, or his parents prior to the current marriage. Theoretical Controls: Relative resources (4 measures), time availability (5 measures), and gender ideology (2 measures) Other Controls: Include father’s education, whether his mother worked, how religious he is, his age, his years of education, his income, and nine others. Men Living Single Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Methods & Data

9 Years Living Single His Relative Income His Hours Of Work Wife’s Hours Of Work Wife Works Regular Hours Number of Children % Children under 5 His Traditional Attitudes Her Traditional Attitudes His Father’s Education His Years Education Couple Owns Home Adjusted R 2 F-Score * ** 0.054** *** *** ** ** 0.069* 0.041* ** *** 0.046* 0.079*** 0.073*** * 0.050** ** * * 0.115*** 0.048* * *** * * *** 0.072*** ** *** * 0.045* 0.054* *** *** His Total Her Total Their Total His Share Men Living Single Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Findings OLS Coefficients for Determinants of Female-Typical Housework Done By Husbands and Wives

10 Men Living Single Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Conclusion H2: The more years a man lives “single”, the fewer hours of housework his wife does, the fewer hours of housework there are to do, the more his share of the housework burden. EFFICIENCY HYPOTHESIS: He Does More Efficient Housework 10 minutes per week for each year single 10 minutes per week for each year single Average Husband: 80 minutes

11 Men Living Independent Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Barracks Not In College Dormitory Not In Prison Not With Parents Not Cohabiting Not Married Not In Military Barracks Not In College Dormitory Not In Prison Living At Home With Parents Living With A Girlfriend Living With A Spouse Living In A Military Barracks Living In A College Dormitory Living In A Prison Living At Home With Parents Living With A Girlfriend Living With A Spouse Living In A Military Barracks Living In A College Dormitory Living In A Prison Any suggestions for a more detailed dataset? More Precision Desired


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