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By: Hannah West. Medicine

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Presentation on theme: "By: Hannah West. Medicine"— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Hannah West

2 Medicine

3 25% of modern medicines are based off of the chemical compositions of plants in the rainforests alone…. Yet the number of plants that have been examined for medicinal value range from 1% to 10%.

4 Learn from the past! Chamomile Lavender Aloe Vera Ginseng Elderberry Fennel Seed Nettle tea Rooibos Valerian root Pinus ponderosa Juniperus scopulorum Pseudotsuga menziesii

5 1972  Plots were taken of various forests in the Rocky Mountains by a researcher named Robert K. Peet  CVS protocol—used to document vegetation  Areas can be observed now and during future years to examine succession  Ecological succession is defined as “the sum of the changes in the composition of a community that occur during its development towards a stable climax community”  Observing the areas was the intentional study, but the focus ended up being on medicinal plants

6 Purpose  Plants were used as medicine and could in turn be used today  Using plants in their natural state is a dying art

7 Succession  Primary: a major catastrophic event removes all plant life from an area  Secondary: not all of the plant species are wiped out and an ecosystem develops from the remaining inhabitance  Occurs naturally due to interactions between various species and other factors

8 Primary Succession

9 Secondary Succession

10 Conservation—saving medicinal plants Human caused succession  Forest fires  CO 2 levels increasing since 1950’s Conservation of knowledge  Witchdoctors without apprentices  Herbal medicine is a dying art

11 Pinus ponderosa Forests  Focus of study  Coniferous forests (trees are cone bearing)  Dominate Rocky Mountains in the lower montane region (5,000 to 9,000 feet)  Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Juniperus scopulorum are endemic to Pinus ponderosa forests  These species were used by Native Americans By: Fumagalli

12 Pinus ponderosa  One of the world’s tallest trees—some over 250 feet  Needles grow in bundles of three and are 10 to 25 cm long  Bark: thick for protection; orange, black, brown, and gray

13  Used as a respiratory cleanser and antiseptic  Pitch (thick resin) was chewed to relieve coughs and sore throats  Branches used in steam baths to relieve muscular pain  Resin was also applied to skin to treat rashes and burns  Grow in semiarid to moist climates  Mountainous and plateau regions  Elevations up to 9,800 feet Pinus ponderosa By: West

14 Pseudotsuga menziesii  Rocky Mountain bears smaller trees: diameters of 1 meter and heights of 100 feet (due to drought)  Needles: short, blue/green

15  Primarily used as an antiseptic  Resin could be chewed to treat coughs  Infusions (extraction via soaking) of the green inner bark was used to treat excessive menstruation, bleeding bowels, and stomach issues  Infusions of young sprouts treated colds  Grow in relatively moist to very dry areas  From the foothills to subalpine Pseudotsuga menziesii By: West

16 Juniperus scopulorum  Cones resemble tiny bluish purple berries  Scaly, sage green leaves  Leaves have resin glands

17  Decoction (extraction via boiling) of berries was used to treat lung/venereal diseases  Decoction of roots, leaves, branches, and bark could treat ulcers and heartburn  Most commonly used as a treatment for urinary tract infections: a teaspoon of crushed berries was steeped— covered—in a cup for 15 minutes, then consumed  Grow in dry, open, rocky sites  From the foothills to the montane  Elevations up to 8,900 feet Juniperus scopulorum By: West

18 12345 109 87 6 Intensives Residuals Plot Diagram

19 Procedure  Non-random sampling based on convience  6 of 305 plots  Observed only Pinus ponderosa forests due to time constraints  Measured trees and identified species

20 Hypotheses H1: Are the species Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Juniperus scopulorum reproducing at the level needed to survive in Pinus ponderosa forests? **Rationale: yes -Succession would not wipe out all three species from various forests within 40 years H2: Is the chemical composition of Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Juniperus scopulorum similar to one another? **Rationale: yes -The species are similar -They are used to treat a lot of the same symptoms

21 Aspect: 40, Slope: 34 Aspect: 285, Slope: 20

22 Aspect: 340, Slope: 18 Aspect: 330, Slope: 20

23 Aspect: 310, Slope: 19 Aspect: 60, Slope: 15

24 Terpenes  Majority of the trees’ medicinal value from the essential oils of their resins  Diterpenes (Monoterpenes and diterpenes are the most common)  The species being studied had abietic acid, specifically palustradiene Abietic acid

25  Juniperus scopulorum contains citronellol  Same chemical in eucalyptus plants  Eucalyptus: 85% (relieves coughs and common colds, treats diabetes, and reduces blood sugar levels)  Juniper berries: 10% Citronellol

26  H1: species were growing in the majority of the plots at a rate necessary to survive (healthy populations with a variety of sizes)  Juniperus scopulorum was less popular  H2: all three resins were determined to provide medicinal use and all consist primarily of terpenes

27 Theoretical and Practical Implications  Arrays of people have the potential to be helped  Ecosystems offer beauty, chemical cycles, healthier planet.....also knowledge  25% of today’s medicines are based off of plants in the rainforests alone

28  Not only pertains to the species that were studied  Encompasses the idea that all plants should be conserved Using plants in their natural state is a dying art + Phytochemistry is a relatively new study A whole world of medicine could be revealed The Big Idea

29 I would like to sincerely thank the Adolph Coors Foundation for sponsoring my research efforts as well as providing me with the opportunity to attend FSI. I would like to thank......  Mario Bretfeld, Michone Duffy  FSI staff: Lori Ball, Karen Allnut, Nicholas Broeker, Nathan Kirkley, Zabedah Saad, Nickolas True, and Kayla Schinke.  Abby Davidson  Antonio Fumagalli and Ashtin Hulse  Tamara Pennington, Glenn Peterson and Meg Jacobson  Mikaela Skaare, Ann & Randy West, Jacob & Alex West. Acknowledgements

30 References  Akerele, O., Heywood, V. H., & Synge, H. (1991). The Conservation of medicinal plants: proceedings of an international consultation, 21-27 March 1988 held at Chiang Mai, Thailand. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.  Anonymous. (2009). Medicinal plants and healthcare. Appropriate Technology, 36(1), 4.  Breitmaier, E. (2006). Terpenes: flavors, fragrances, pharmaca, pheromones. Weinheim: WILEY-VCH.  Carolina Vegetation Survey. Web. 11 July 2011..  | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Web. 11 July 2011..  Douglas Fir/Juniper/Ponderosa Pine. (n.d.). Medicinal herbs - natural healing power. Retrieved July 6, 2011, from  Ecological Succession. (n.d.). Welcome to Penn State's Home on the Web. Retrieved July 5, 2011, from  Elsevier. (2005). Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 7(1), 69-76.  Firn, R. (2010). Nature's chemicals the natural products that shaped our world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Kershaw, L., MacKinnon, A., & Pojar, J. (1998). Plants of the Rocky Mountains. Edmonton: Lone Pine Pub.  Kershner, B., Mathews, D., Nelson, G., & Spellenberg, R. (2008). Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Chanticleer Press, Inc.  Lewin, D. C., Peet, R. K., & Veblen, T. T. (1992). Plant succession: theory and prediction. London: Chapman & Hall.  Moerman, D. (2009). Native American medicinal plants:an ethnobotanicaldictionary. Oregon: Timber Press.  Moore, M. (1979). Medicinal plants of the mountain West. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press.  Peet, R. (1972). Forest vegetation of the Colorado Front Range. Department of Biology, University of North Carolina. Retrieved July 5, 2011, from;3.pdf  Plants, T. U. (n.d.). Saving Rainforests with Medicinal Plants. Rainforests. Retrieved July 21, 2011, from  Ponderosa Pine - Colorado State Forest Service - Colorado State University. (n.d.). Colorado State Forest Service - Colorado State University. Retrieved July 14, 2011, from pine.html  Sell, C. S. (2003). A fragrant introduction to terpenoid chemistry. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.  Solomon, A. M., & Shugart, H. H. (1993). Vegetation dynamics & global change. New York: Chapman & Hall.  Sumner, J. (2000). The natural history of medicinal plants. Portland, Or.: Timber Press.  Terpene (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 21, 2011, from  Terpene Chemistry ex Pine Trees!. (n.d.). Squidoo : Welcome to Squidoo. Retrieved July 21, 2011, from

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