Northwestern Coniferous Forest Includes area from coastal ranges of Northern California to the southern part of Alaska Stretches through Oregon, Washington, and Minnesota and other northwestern states
Map Northwestern Coniferous Forest
Definition: a type of forest characterized by cone-bearing, needle-leaved trees
Geography Sandy and gravelly soil along river beds Mountainous, uneven grounds Ranges from 2000 to 12,000 feet in elevation Includes Rocky Mountains Forest is divided into zones at different elevations including many types of trees, plants, and animals
Geography Forest is divided into zones at different elevations including many types of trees, plants, and animals
Zones Mountain Complex of Southern Rockies- reaches altitudes of 12,000 feet Creosote Bush-greasewood Association- hot, dry, lower slopes below 6,000 feet Pinyon-Juniper Association- between 5,000 to 7,000 feet Ponderosa Pine Zone- found from 6,000 to 8,000 feet
Zones Douglas-fir Zone- 7,500 to 9,000 feet Spruce-fir Zone- between 8,500 and 11,500 feet Alpine Tundra Zone- occurs above timberline Subalpine Zone- found around 2,000 feet in elevation
Meteorology Precipitation varies from 50 inches per year in southern portion Relatively dry summers
Meteorology Up to 200 inches of precipitation on mountain slopes Climate consists of long winters with heavy snows and short, dry summers with cool temperatures
Meteorology Lower slopes of the eastern cascades are especially dry, rainfall ranging from inches a year and a long dry summer Cold winters and cool summers are caused by arctic air masses resulting in extreme temperature variations Most precipitation occurs during warm months
Human Influence Clear-cut logging is the biggest threat Clear-cutting accelerates soil erosion, degrades wild-life habitat, and leads to the loss of biodiversity
Human Influence Land is being cleared for ski slopes, landfills, housing, new roads, etc.
Botany Coniferous forest cover huge areas but have fewer kinds of plants and animals than any other forest. Many coniferous forests are enormous; they are some of the last wild places in the northern hemisphere. Some of the coniferous forests in Canada are half frozen and the trees only grow for a few weeks a year.
Botany Both big leaf maple and red alder are pioneer tree species on recently burned and heavily logged areas in the region. Western Larch and Western White Pine are important successional species in this eastern extension. The Creosote bush-greenwood association occupies the hot, dry lower.
Douglas Fir Shining green color Wood is very strong. Needles do not fall off easy. Usually grows between feet in height but occasionally this tree can grow up to 250ft high. Leaves are between 1- 1 ½ inches in length.
Willow Tree There are about 300 different types of willows. The longest willow grows over 120 feet high. They are planted in wet regions so their roots can soak up the water to dry out the soil. By providing shade, the willow protects the fields. The twigs are used to make baskets and wicker furniture because they can bend so easily. The willow bark provides a material that can be used to relive pain and fever.
Other Plant Life Service Berry Western Wallflower Jeffery Pine Snow Brush Squaw Carpet Waterleaf Ponderosa Pine White Fir
Zoology Because the plants grow so slowly, animals need to roam over large areas to find enough food.
Snow Leopard Soft, grey coat with white on the stomach and solid black or brown spots on his head and limbs. Black streak down its back. Lots of fur o their paws for protection from the cold and snow. Head and body length= inches and the tail is inches long. Lives mostly in the mountains and rocky places.
Red Fox Hunt mostly at night and remain active the year round. They often roam grassy meadows and listen for squeaks of mice. They sometimes stand on their hind legs to get better view in tall grass. A fox may lie in wait and pounce on a ground squirrel or wood chuck. Most commonly found in Canada and Northern North America.
Questions 1.North Western Coniferous Forest range from ____________ to ______________. 2.What kind of soil is in the Northwestern Coniferous Forest? 1. 2,000 to 12,000 feet 2. sandy and gravelly 3. Why do animals in the Coniferous Forest cover so much land to find food? 4. Where do snow leopards live? 3. Plants grow so slowly because of weather 4. Mostly in mountains and rocky places 5. What are the two pioneer tree species in the Coniferous Forest? 6.How do people use the Willow tree? 5. big leaf maple and red alder 6. Used for basket making and wicker furniture and also in some medicines 7. What is the climate like in the Northwestern Coniferous Forest? 8.When does precipitation occur most in the Coniferous Forest? 7. consists of long winters with heavy snows and short, dry summers with cool temperatures 8. during warm months