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Context Over the past 3 decades martial arts have become increasingly popular due to their portrayal in Hollywood movies etc. As media can be very influential.

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Presentation on theme: "Context Over the past 3 decades martial arts have become increasingly popular due to their portrayal in Hollywood movies etc. As media can be very influential."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Context Over the past 3 decades martial arts have become increasingly popular due to their portrayal in Hollywood movies etc. As media can be very influential on children, many of them take up a martial art to be like their favourite actors, this fact can be seen as 85% of martial arts practitioners are under the age of 13. Most martial arts base their training around repetitively performing series’ of co-ordinated strikes, blocks and other moves, as such the form of these moves has to be practiced until they are perfectly ingrained in the practitioners memory. Another factor that has to be learned as well is the sequencing of moves, this can be difficult when concentrating on all the other factors, subsequently this is where most beginners to intermediate practitioners make mistakes. This is where the problem lies, when training with multiple factors to be considered the student becomes over tasked with things to think about, as a result the student will make mistakes and potentially harm themselves and/or others. My product will be used to counter the problem of remembering sequencing. By producing a training aid that will utilise electronically sequenced LED’s the practitioner can follow the sequence fluently while concentrating on their form. Because the students no longer have to task themselves with remembering sequences they do not overload and can train effectively, once they begin to remember the sequences they can increase the speed at which the sequencer runs, which will test their reaction times and train them to act swiftly. In addition to its primary function, the training aid can also be used to develop the students resistance to damage by strengthening the students arms and legs through the use of controlled damage. Design Brief I will be designing and manufacturing an electronic martial arts training aid, that will help practitioners reduce their workload when training, which in turn will ensure they can focus properly and receive a greater benefit from training. The first product will be a full scale prototype, used to test the electronics and how they perform when the training aid sustains the practitioners strikes etc. The training aid needs to be simple yet functional, whilst also being strong and durable to ensure the aid will remain functional after repeated use.

3 Research During the research stages of this project I will gather information about the problem at hand by speaking with clients and using questionnaires aimed at martial arts practitioners, once the problem is clearly identified I will research into relevant topics that will be needed so a useful product can be designed & made. Design In the design stages of the product I will use the information at hand to design a range of products, with feed back from clients these designs can be developed into a more suitable product. Feedback at this stage is crucial as it will heavily influence the direction of the project and the outcome of the final product. Planning Planning the project the whole way through is crucial to ensure that the project maintains progress and sticks to the time available to design & manufacture the product. More specific planning will also be used in certain areas of the project such as the manufacturing stage as any errors here may compromise the product’s quality etc. Manufacture To begin with the developed designs will be modelled at a small scale to give the clients something physical to work with and give feedback on, with the use of this feedback alterations will be made to the model until a final design is confirmed. Once the design is finalised the product will be made as a 1/3 scale model. Testing When the product is made it will be checked over for any problems before taking it to the clients for testing, once checked it will be taken to the client who will the test the product and give their feedback on points such as the aesthetics, ergonomics and features etc. Evaluation After looking at all of the feedback on the product I can evaluate the product, look at how it compares to the intended designs were supposed to work etc. I can also look at what could be improved if the product was to be made again, this could include changes to the product itself or how it is made, such as using more economic methods of production or using more environmentally friendly materials.

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5 Assignment criteria: Explanation:Dates: Context and Objectives To determine exactly what needs to be manufactured I will look at the problems martial artists face when training, with this information I can plan my project accordingly to ensure it tackles the problems. 11/10/11 Clarification of Problems With my project structure in place I can research into materials, methods of production, and other areas that are relative to my project. With my research done I can start designing the product. Development of Design Proposal After researching I can design products that meet the required features etc. With feedback on these designs I can develop them, then decide which will be the final product for production. At this stage I can also look at manufacturing methods etc. and decide how the final product would be best made. ModellingBefore manufacturing the full size product will build a smaller scale model to test how well everything is placed etc. If anything needs altering it can be remodelled, by modelling first it will save material costs and potential waste. ManufactureWith the models made and developed I can select the best one then manufacture it in full size, using the plan of manufacture that will be made after researching into materials and methods etc. Conclusions, Client Meetings, Recommendations Once the product is manufactured I can take it to my clients for testing, during this stage they will give feedback on how well the product works, if any changes need to be made or other recommendations. EvaluationsWith the feedback from my clients and product questionnaires I can effectively evaluate my product. With this evaluation I can see the strengths/weakness’ with the product and how it could be altered if it were to be redone etc. Communication, Presentation I intend for my port folio to be very professional and easy to obtain information from, to achieve this the layout and its content will be placed so it is easy to read and pick out key bits of information. In terms of communication all client feedback will be noted, and questionnaire data will be shown etc.

6 From the start of my design cycle I will use two clients who will give a list of specific features that need to be incorporated into my product to ensure it performs as expected. As my project is mainly aimed at beginners to intermediate level students one of my clients has to be someone who falls into that category, on the other hand my other client will be an instructor. By using both an intermediate & senior practitioners I can get feedback that comes from two different points of view. During the project I will take designs & models to the clients, by doing so they can look at how the product may look and provide feedback which can be used to improve current designs and models etc. When the final product is manufactured both clients will test and evaluate the product, additional a range of students can test it and give thoughts on the product. With this feedback I can look over the project and evaluate it, looking at what could have been changed or done differently. Client – Intermediate level studentClient – Senior instructor Name: Daniel Pickles Age: 17 Martial Art: Karate Grade: Green belt Training time per week: 2 hours My first client is an intermediate level martial artist who practices Karate & holds a green belt. As a green belt my client is classified as an intermediate level practitioner, as such he will fall into the range of my target market. With the help of an intermediate practitioner I can effectively design a product with the customer’s needs in mind. Name: Andrew Nightingale Age: 40 Martial Art: Shotokan Karate Grade: 4 th Black Training time per week: 10+ hours My second client is a senior level practitioner and instructor, using an instructor as one of my clients I am able to gather quality research that will be used in the design & manufacture of my product. During the Design process I will discuss my designs with the client and use his expertise to refine the product before the final product is made.

7 When talking to the senior instructor about my product he provided the information needed as well as sketching a few points to illustrate exactly what is need within the product to make sure it works well as a training aid. In the sketches on the left photo the instructor explains how the electronic sequencing needs to work, he points out that the product needs to have varying levels of difficulty between a value of one & ten. For each level of difficulty there needs to be at least 5 random sequences, each of which is comprised of combinations of 2 to 10 moves. Additionally each sequence needs a way to increase or decrease the speed at which the sequence runs. The second photo shows how the product should look overall and where the LEDs need to be placed. The sketches show that the product shouldn't imitate the human form too accurately as doing so will make the product too weak to train powerful strikes on, instead a torso shape as seen below should be used so it can withstand the punishment given to it. By speaking with clients and other martial artists I have identified exactly what features need to be included in my training aid for it to work properly and yield the maximum benefits for the user training with it. The key features that need to be included are listed below. Variable levels of difficulty, each with a minimum of 5 sub sequences. Speed control that affects all sequences. Tall torso shape to fit all vital areas on. Rigid body, that doesn’t deform after being hit. Method of attaching to the ceiling and floor, connecters have to be able to stretch to a certain point. Timer as an optional extra.

8 Aesthetics & Function The wooden dummy is a very simple yet functional design, it has been used for the last 300 years, over this period the design has not changed significantly, excluding aesthetic features. The main functions the dummy serves is to allow the user to improve their form, ingrain sequences and strengthen the arms/hands. Aesthetic design remains plain on most dummies, generally a lacquered wood is used as the finish. Rope may also be tied around certain areas to provide an individualised look while serving as padding when striking the wood. Ergonomics & Anthropometrics The wooden dummy uses anthropometric data of the user so the dummy can be specifically made to mirror the users measurements with the exception of the leg, which is at a universal set height. The dummy is design to mirror the users measurements to ensure maximum training efficiency. All of the edges are smoothed off so the user gets no splinters etc. Materials The materials used in the dummy are mostly woods of some form, the main body is made of Hoop Pine. This particular pine is a softwood that has some characteristics of a hard wood, this is why it is suitable for use in a training dummy. It is fairly dense so it will not dent when hit by the user. Availability of Hoop Pine is quite low as it is mainly found in Australia, because of this I probably will not use it for my project. The wooden arms are made from a hardwood because they need to withstand the users strikes over and over. The base is made from something like pine, its main function is to hold up the main body. All of the wood is covered in a lacquer, the lacquer protects the wood from light wear and tear to an extent. It also protects the dummy from moisture. The base is held together will simple screws. Manufacture The manufacture of a wooden dummy is a one off production because each one is custom made for the user’s measurements. The production of the dummy starts with the main body being bought, the main body is then marked up to the correct measurements & cut into shape. It is then cut into to form the slots for the arms & leg. With the main work done on the body it is sanded down then coated in a lacquer. The arms & leg go through a similar process, a bigger piece of wood is split into 3 parts for each arm, they are then cut into shape then sanded down and then finally finished with the lacquer. The leg goes though a different process, it is cut into two separate parts then joined together with a metal pin to form a knee joint. Afterwards it is sanded down and then sealed with lacquer. The base is made from pine slats, which are screwed together to form a triangular base section. Finally the arms & leg are attached to the body and the base is attached with screws. Conclusion Overall the wooden dummy is a very simple design, with little aesthetic features that is made with functionality in mind. It has some ergonomic features such as matching the users height and positioning of the limbs etc. The wooden dummy will contribute a lot to my product, the basics of my product will be based upon the dummy, as such it will ensure my product is effective in its role. My product will not use Hoop Pine because of its availability and cost, a cheaper alternative will have to be used to ensure the cost of the manufacture stays low.

9 Materials The materials used in making the bag have to be strong and durable to withstand repeated punishment. The bag itself is most likely made out of vinyl or canvas because they are durable materials that are relatively inexpensive. The filling that goes in the bag can use many things, depending on the intended weight of the bag it may be filled with a mixture of dense foam, sand, wood chippings or other materials. The filler is also cheap as waste material from other things can be used. The base has to be considerably heavy to ensure the bag doesn’t fall over when hit, as such the base may be filled with sand or something heavier such as metal plates. Aesthetics & Function The main function of the standing punch bag is to serve as a target for the user to practice attacks on. It is different from the wooden dummy because it doesn’t aim specifically to increase the users agility and technique in the same way. The bag can range from 4-6feet in height; the height allows the bag to be attacked with both the arms and legs and as such is a good training aid for a for someone who practices a martial art that uses both arms & legs. The aesthetics of the bag can range from being plain to a little more fancy. The average bag tends to be more on the plain side, with a logo of the manufacturer or other logos etc. The base of most bags are made of a durable and rigid polymer, some may have a unique shaped base exclusive to a brand etc. As far as the finishing goes, the base is left in its natural state with no finishes applied. Attached to the base is the support pole, this pole supports the bag and keeps it upright after being hit. A polished or brushed effect is usually applied to the metal to improve upon the overall look of the bag. As for the bag itself, it is made of a tough canvas weave and covered in leather or vinyl. Ergonomics & Anthropometrics The anthropometric data used in designing the punch bag is very minimal, it takes into account the height and arm reach of the average person. Ergonomics however play a bigger part in the punch bags function. All of the punch bag’s edges are rounded off and smoothed for general safety and so that the user doesn’t damage their feet when they kick the bag. The contents of the bag are also taken into consideration, if the user intends to improve their form the bag doesn't need to be rock solid. Manufacture Manufacturing the punch bag is quite simple as most of the work can be done using machinery. The base is made through the process of injection molding, it is then filled with the weights. Next the mid section is made using metal that contains a spring system with dampening, it is then screwed into the base ready to attach the bag. Finally cuts of vinyl are taken from a sheet then stitched to form the shape of the bag. The bag is then filled with wood chippings or sand etc. To keep the bag rigid & upright when attached to the base a mild steel rod is placed in the centre. With all the parts now ready the bag is attached to the base by screwing in the steel rod, the ends of the open bag are fixed in place tightly to keep the bag taught. Materials The materials used in making the bag have to be strong and durable to withstand repeated punishment. The bag itself is most likely made out of vinyl or canvas because they are durable materials that are relatively inexpensive. The filling that goes in the bag can use many things, depending on the intended weight of the bag it may be filled with a mixture of dense foam, sand, wood chippings or other materials. The filler is also cheap as waste material from other things can be used. The base has to be considerably heavy to ensure the bag doesn’t fall over when hit, as such the base may be filled with sand or something heavier such as metal plates. Conclusion Overall the standing punch bag is a simplistic design intended to improve the users stamina, co- ordination and power. After analyzing this product I can conclude that using either vinyl or canvas to make the bag would provide good durability for my product. Designs and logos can also be stitched or printed on the bag, which improves it’s aesthetics.

10 To find ergonomic data directly related to my project I have visited a karate class to take a few photos of how the training aid will be hit from different positions. In the first photo the students is in the basic front stance striking the training aid with the lead arm. In this position I can measure the maximum reach of the student whilst he maintains correct form. In the second photo the student assumes the same front stance but instead strikes with the opposite arm. In the last photo the student is in the reverse stance, this stance is the second most used stance in karate. From this stance the student strikes the training aid with the lead hand. By looking at the photos & taking measurements of relevant areas I can effectively determine how my project will need to use anthropometric data to ensure it is designed to fit the users data.

11 To select the most suitable fabric for use in my project I tested all of the options by using two tests & looking at the results of each test to determine the most suitable option. Before testing any material I cut them all in to a 200mm x 50mm rectangle to ensure the test was fair, afterwards they were tested using weights to see how much they can hold and stretch. The next test was to sand the material down using a belt sander to simulate heavy wear & tear. Material Research & Testing Firstly the materials are cut into 200mm x 50mm strips to ensure the same amount of material is used in each test. Next a hole is punched in to the fabric using a hole punch to provide a point to hang weights from. With the materials now ready for testing, one end is pinned to the table using a G-clamp and the material is pulled taught so that an initial measurement of the length can be obtained. Gradually more weights are hung from the bottom of the material, measurements are also taken at each new increment of weight to see how much the material stretches. Finally the material is released and measured to see if it has permanently deformed due to the weight. Testing a range of different materials yielded a wide range of results for how each one stretched under force, the most durable material tested was real leather, as seen in the top right picture it deformed very little after holding the maximum amount of weight with little strain in comparison to some of the other materials such as the one to the left of the leather. The fine weaved polyester was unable to hold the maximum weight, the bottom of the material was torn apart by the weight. By conducting this test I was able to produce a chart of results which in turn would help me pick the most suitable material, the chosen material was cotton canvas.

12 Material Research & Testing The second stage of my material test was to simulate heavy wear & tear by pressing the materials against a belt sander, although it is unlikely that any of the materials would face such wear and tear it allows me to look at the materials side by side in terms of durability. Before sanding the materials five squares are cut out of some scrap wood, the squares are used to hold the material safely in place when sanding the materials. Once the square are cut out they are covered in layer of all purpose glue, the solvent based glue will ensure the material stays firmly in place. A thin layer is also place on the materials and they are both left to dry a little bit before sticking on. Finally the materials are stuck on to the wooden squares and any air bubbles are removed to make the material stick on as well as possible, these squares are then left to dry before testing. Once the materials were ready a table was drawn out to record the results, the materials would be pushed evenly against the belt sander for 5 seconds initially then further increments of 5 up to 20, if still intact they were kept on until they were completely sanded away. The damage for each increment was noted down along with the final time in the table below. By condensing the information from all the testing in to one table I was able to compare each material side by side to determine the most suitable material. (costs for each material were also considered but not noted in the table).

13 When researching in to current training aids on the market I contacted a retailer that specialise in various types off training aids for all types of martial arts. I sent an explaining my situation and asked if I could visit the shop to speak with the owner to talk about some of the products they sell. Unfortunately I have had no reply so I have used other sources to obtain the information.

14 Context, Objectives & Plan of Action By having a clear context my objectives were much easier to plan out, after researching into the actual problem in detail I could outline my objectives to begin the process of solving the problem. My objectives outline exactly what needs to be done in order to design & manufacture a product to solve the problem. After my objectives were in place a plan of action detailing all the key points within my project was made to keep me on track when researching, designing & manufacturing. Client Profile & Primary Research From the onset of the project it was very important to have a client(s) to work with, by first building up a profile of my clients I am able to tailor the product to the general needs of the clients, this general outline can be made more specific with the help of information from the clients, this may be information such as the required features, sizes, ergonomic features etc. With this information I can make my product suit the specific needs of the clients instead of having it only partially solve the problem. Analysis of Task & Product Analysis The second stage of my research is to analyse the task set out, this involves looking at everything included within the project, ranging from materials used to designing & modelling, the task analysis gives a brief overview of all the things I will need to research or cover in my project. The secondary research in the project is the analysis of existing products, by analysing the existing products I can look at all the things that make them good product for use in designing my own product, I can also learn from the flaws of the products by ensuring mine does not share the same problems. Material Research & Testing The materials used in my product is another important part, as such all the considered materials that could be used in the manufacturing of the product have been tested using controlled experiments to determine the most suitable one to use for the construction of the product. Ergonomics & Anthropometrics When building a product that has lots of features that that are going to be used heavily by humans the ergonomics of the product need to be done with a high quality, the start of getting the ergonomics right are researching sizes & shapes such as stance posture, height & reach. Researching these things are vital as if the product is not designed bearing these things in mind the product will be far less effective at fulfilling its function. As the product a lot of important features included the ergonomics of it need to be researched in depth. Conclusion The research conducted has helped my significantly with the designing & manufacturing of the product, in terms of designing a range of possible products the primary research has helped me to better understand exactly what is need from the product, due to this I can successfully design the products to suit the client's needs. Other research such as the analysis of existing products has also helped me design and manufacture my product, the mistakes made in the existing products has helped me stay clear of any similar problems that could occur in my product. In addition to the research into the products, the research into the materials used has provided me with information that I can utilise when choosing which materials to use in my product.

15 Function The intended function of my product is to allow martial arts practitioners to continue train to a high standard when they are out of lesson. In a lesson there is plenty of guidance, at home there is none, my product will eliminate that problem by training the user outside of lesson. The training aid also helps the user to develop correct striking distance, improve their balance. Depending on the amount of padding in the training aid the user can control how their arm & leg strength develops. On the side, the training aid will also provide a workout for the user which will increase their stamina. Aesthetics The design of the training aid will be based upon a human figure to make the aid more realistic. The wood used fro the support structure may be left natural or stained depending on its natural look. The aid itself will be a similar size to the average human to make the aid more useful when training. Ergonomics The ergonomic feature will be fairly basic, they will include the rounding of sharp edges for the purposes of safety. The ergonomic design will also be based around a humans anthropometric data. Target Market The target market of my product is mainly intended to be beginner to intermediate level martial artists because they are still learning the art, as such they would have the most benefit from this training aid as opposed to an advanced practitioner. Although the product is aimed at lower skilled practitioners, martial arts teacher may be interested as they could incorporate it into their lessons for students to increase reaction times and balance before progressing etc. CAD Computer design software will be used in designing my product to show how everything looks when it is built. When modelling and developing my ideas, CAD will be used to design the components of my model, CAM will be then used to manufacture the model components. Testing To test my product, it will be first tested by myself to ensure there are no flaws in the making process. Afterwards it will be taken to my clients who will use the product to test its primary function, they will provide feedback on the final product for me to use in my evaluation. Environmental Issues My product will be environmentally friendly, the wood used in it can be either reused in other products or made into MDF. The padding used in the product will be non cross linked polythene, this means it too is completely recyclable. Manufacturing the polythene also has low impact on the environment. Finally the canvas and metal fixings used in the product are both reusable and recyclable. Moral & Social Issues There may be some moral & social issues encountered when designing & manufacturing my product, people with injuries or disabilities may not be able to use the product, as such this may be seen as a problem to certain people.

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17 Initially a 2D outline is drawn on a work plane using line & arc tools, as seen to the left. After the basic model shape is achieved all of the edges are smoothed off by using the round edge tool. The 2d Outline is then made into a 3D version using the revolve Tool. On a new work plane the side profile is drawn, which is then applied to the 3D model above. Any excess material is removed using the extrusion tool to get the model seen below. Once the model is designed using CAD it is exported to quick cam pro as a stereo lithography file ready to be set up for machining. Using the QCP program the scale of the model is set up and checked before machining. With the scale set the depth of the 1 st half is determined by raising or lowering the plane as seen on the left. Finally the parameters for the router are set ready for the program to be launched.

18 With the software side now ready to go, a block of styrofoam is cut into the dimensions need for model, with a little excess left. Double sided tape is then used to stick the foam block into place in the router. With both halves now machined out the excess material around the body is carefully removed using a craft knife. Using a ban saw the foam block is cut in half leaving only the half of the model. The other unused half of the block is then kept for other use. With everything ready the router is launched, it runs over the foam taking very thin layers off with each pass. Finally it runs over quickly to smooth it down. The foam block is then removed from the router using a thing objects such as a ruler by sliding it underneath it. The tape left behind is peeled off then thrown away. The other half is then machined out by using the same method as the 1 st half. Once the excess is removed from the model the whole thing is sanded down using glass paper to start with. It is then sanded down further with wet & dry to achieve a smooth finish. With both sides now sanded down they are put back to back for comparison, any extra material is sanded off till both sides are equal.

19 Once the models are equal in size they have a thin layer of PVA glue applied to the backs, they are then pressed together. PVA glue is used as it is strong enough to hold the lightweight model together and it contains no solvents which would damage the styrofoam. With the glue applied the model is held together suing masking tape, it is applied tightly to ensure the model retains its shape when drying. While the two halves of the model are stuck together the finishing touches are designed and cut out using a laser cutter. The material is first placed in the top left corner of the laser cutter and is flattened out. The lid is then closed and the machine switched on and given time to boot up. The next step is to open 2D design software on the computer and design the cut out. With that done, the operation sheet is consulted to obtain the correct settings for the material in use. The parameters of power and cutting speed are set up and linked to a colour, then the design needs to be changed to the correct colours. Finally the program is run and the laser cuts out the material, after it is done time should be allowed for any hazardous gasses to be vacuumed out before opening the lid and retrieving the cut out material. Before using the machine it is calibrated to ensure it is all set up properly, if it is not calibrated it might not cut the material or it could damage it if it cut too much etc.

20 With the glue applied the model is held together suing masking tape, it is applied tightly to ensure the model retains its shape when drying.

21 The finished initial design was taken to both of my clients to for feedback on points such as the general shape, the proportions of the parts and specific features such as the shape or position of certain lines etc. The stomach was the most important part which needed changing, the entire design needed to be altered to rid the ‘beer belly’ and replace it with a slimmer more muscular design along with redesigning the chest to have more muscle. Another related point is the shoulder region, the shoulders need to be broader and the latisimus dorsi made bigger to give the body a V taper, by doing so high kicks will connect more easily and will not slip off which is a problem faced when using normal punch bags. To complete the more muscular & athletic design a waist is to be cut out, this will make the design more accurately represent a human torso and provide a reference point for striking the training aid. The other points that needed change were around the neck and jaw line, with the current design there is no neck to target which is in fact a major target area in martial arts, this should be solved by broadening and flattening the shoulders to make the neck an accessible target. Once the neck has been made accessible the jaw line needs to be more prominent along with the chin so it provides an accurate target to train with. My A-frame model was chosen to be used out of the available three designs due to having a more sturdy build. As the A-frame is capable of free standing and being wall mounted it combines the abilities of the other designs. The third design was wall mountable only, because of being wall mounted it would provide maximum stability and would prove to be a useful frame, however the frame would be more useful if it was free standing, The second frame design was considered too unstable to be used effectively when free standing, as it can’t be wall mounted to provide extra stability it was put aside in favour of the more stable A-frame design.

22 The next step is to smooth off all the small edges left by the extrusion process, this can take quite long as now & then errors occur due to the amount of rounding off that needs to be done, the only way to solve these errors is to redefine the data for the rounding process The next step involves using the evolve tool to transform the 2D drawing in to a cylindrical shaped object as seen on the left. The next stage is then sketched on paper as a rough guide. Following the sketch on paper as a rough guide a side on profile is drawn out using the line tool, once the correct shape has been achieved the profile is extruded all the way through the model to remove the excess material, leaving a general body shape as seen below. Once the general shape of the body has been modelled various rough edges are smoothed off to give a more natural rounded look, the round edge tool is used to achieve this. With the torso section now complete the finer details around the neck area are improved upon, initially another profile is drawn and lined up with the head, this time the extrusion is only part way through the model to create a jaw line. Before moving on to the next step the jaw line is evaluated on its position relative to the face & head, if it doesn't look right it can be modified by changing the extrusion data. This small but important step is repeated until the jaw line looks right. After looking at feedback on the initial model I redesigned the model, to start with I altered the 2D drawing to make the shoulders broader and the waist more defined along with minor alterations to the neck. Finally the developed model is checked over for mistakes etc. before sending the data to the router. Once the model is checked it is machined out using the same machine and process as the first model.

23 The final design is the design used from the second stage of modelling, it has been modified from the initial model to better suit the user's needs & eliminate any flaws in the initial model. As seen in the pictures below the product has a more muscular athletic look to it rather than an overweight model, other features like the waist have been designed to be used as a reference point as well as adding to the athletic look. The ‘pharaoh’ looking face is the chin, as modelling a real head would be very difficult it is also not recommended by the client, instead a bigger head with a jaw line is preferred, as such the head is made circular with material taken away from the lower sides to replicate a jaw line & chin.

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25 To begin with I drew out a scale diagram of the metal frame, it was scaled based upon the size of the model itself to ensure it was the right size in comparison, the angles and cut edges were all worked out using trigonometry. After the frame was planned out the metal was rubbed down lightly using wire wool, this removed most of the rust and other stains on the metal making it much easier to mark out and check when cutting through the metal. The next step first involves setting up a metal vice in a regular vice, the metal vice needs to be used as it’s resistant to the saw blades unlike a normal vice. The metal is then fixed in place and is cut vertically downwards using a saw, this step is repeated for all of the parts. Once all the metal was rubbed down using the wire wool I used a metal scribe along with a ruler & tri-square to clearly mark out the metal for cutting. The ruler was used to find the correct distance, then the tri-square is used to provide a steady edge to mark along with the scribe. With the parts now cut out they are all filed down using a range of files as seen at the bottom, all the rough edges are removed and any excess material outside of the cut line is removed. During the process of filing down the parts, they are regularly checked by lining the part up alongside a ruler, if the part is the correct size the next part is filed down, if not, it is reworked until it is the correct size. With all the parts now ready to be welded together they are aligned in the correct position on a table, the gaps between the edges are checked and any other flaws are looked for before welding.

26 With the parts laid on the ready on the table the MIG welder is plugged in and the pressurised gas is turned on, safety equipment is also readied for use of the welder. Before starting a jump lead is attached to the part of the frame being welded to enable the electric current to pass through harmlessly, the parts being welded are then given a final check using the tri-square. Whilst taking all the points together the parts are checked against the tri-square to make sure they remain straight, the heat involved in the welding can cause the parts to bend out of shape slightly. Initially a small blob is welded on at the corners of each edge, this acts like a tacking pin while the rest of the frame is put together. If any parts are misaligned due to welding they are knocked back into place using a hammer, very light hits are needed as the amount of misalignments tends to be minimal. Once all the parts are tacked together the rest of the welding is done, during this step all the gaps between the tacked points are filled, this is where a welding mask needs to be used for safety, as the welder is creates very bright sparks it is vital to wear eye protection for the extended usage of the welder. Finally the frame is checked over for any spots gaps that may have been missed or any poor welds, the alignment of the parts are assessed before moving on. The next stage is to file down the welds to the stage where they near flush with the frame, over filing the welds has to be avoided however, as it could cause the welds to become weak and it may end up leaving gaps in the frame too.

27 After the filing is complete the frame is given another rub down using wire wool, this time more time is taken to ensure as much rust etc. Is removed before painting it. Using newspapers as a cover the frame is placed on top ready to be sprayed with a base coat. This first layer of primer acts as a base coat that covers up any flaws in the frame, using the primer gives the second coat a much better quality. The primer is sprayed on at roughly 15cm away from the frame and is applied in thin layers, the base coat is layered up until the full frame has a quality coating. The frame is left for 20 minutes to dry, then the frame is flipped and the rest of the frame is sprayed to complete the base coat. After waiting at least 24 hours after applying the basecoat the second coat of satin black paint is sprayed on using the same method as before. The main problems encountered when manufacturing the frame was the cutting of the metal, it was a minor difficulty cutting through the metal by hand whilst trying to ensure the line was followed. Another difficulty encountered was the amount of time needed to effectively file the metal parts down before and after welding. Despite these minor difficulties encountered the frame was manufactured to high quality and received positive feedback in terms of build quality.

28 To start with on the fabric section I used a pencil to draw an outline of the scale model on some cotton canvas, these outlines were drawn for all sides of the model to give me an idea of the amount of material need for the final product. Once the outlines were drawn they were cut out using a craft knife, a cutting board was place under the canvas to protect the desk, afterwards the canvas was pulled taught and cut out using the craft knife. Cutting the canvas was somewhat difficult due to its thick weave. With all the parts cut out I used drawing pins to secure the parts onto the scale model, by tacking these parts on I could see where problems may occur when designing the full size product. After the model was checked over & any possible difficulties noted the parts were taken off. After taking the parts off I measured the dimensions & noted them on the parts for the next stage. With the use of the parts dimensions from the part before and a book on anthropometric data I drew out a scale of the final product with the actual dimensions worked out along with seam allowances etc. With the information on the dimensions for the final product I began marking on the designs for the product on a fresh piece of cotton canvas. I achieved this by using a sharp pencil& ruler along with a compass, one difficulty was that the pencil wore down quickly on the canvas and needed to be sharpened constantly. After the final product was marked out it was cut out into the sections using a pair of textiles scissors ready to be sewn up. Once all the parts were cut out, all of the dimensions were double checked for any errors before stitching to avoid possible complications.

29 Using a dewing machine with a light coloured thread to match the canvas, I began stitching along the edges of the parts using the seam allowance space to stitch in. Before the electronics could be put in the holes need to be made for the LEDs, these holes were made by burning a hole into the canvas using a soldering iron, using the soldering iron left a neat hole for the LED to pop out of. The next sections to be stitched on were the waist & the side of the chest, from there the front was stitched on to create the majority of the body. The first parts that were stitched together were the back section along with the side of the legs and the bottom, these sections provide the base for the rest of the sections to be stitched on. The shoulders were the next to be attached followed by the neck sections, from here the head is left open and the body is turned inside out ready to have the electronics put in and the stuffing put in. The problem was fixed by drilling a hole through the cases, the drill bit was.5mm bigger than the hole, by doing so it gave enough room for the LEDs to fit through. As seen on the left the solution worked well providing a snug fit for the LEDs in the casing.. All of the holes were tested by pushing the LED through, if it didn’t go through the hole was made bigger by pushing on the edges of the hole with the soldering iron, this was done until the LEDs fit. A problem encountered with the fabric section was aligning the LED cases on both side of the fabric, because of minute differences inn alignment the LEDs couldn’t fit through them.

30 To finish the circuit the battery & switch are put in and the excess wire on the components are trimmed off. Lastly the micro pic controller is put in, this is the brain of the circuit. Due to time constraints & financial limitations the electronics used in the product are used only as a demonstration of how the electronics would work if the product was to be made properly. To begin with the circuit board has the resistors put in place & soldered, then the capacitors along with other components are put in. The LEDs are put in near to the end of the assembly. The circuit is then tested for any lose connections & any lose spots are soldered a little more to ensure a solid connection is established. The circuit is checked once more & patched up if necessary, it is now complete and ready to be put in the fabric section of the product. The next stage of the electronics was to modify the length of the wire to the LED’s, this was done by cutting the LEDs off then soldering a wire in between the circuit board and the LED. One major problem with the circuit was how weak the wires were around the switch, this was due to the solder applied to keep them in place. To resolve this a bigger switch was used and the wire was just wrapped around instead then covered up with tape.

31 After taking the product to the clients they looked examined the product and gave detailed feedback, some of the main features that needed change were the frame’s design & small adjustments to the training aid itself. The base of the frame was the main problem with the product, when it was free standing it was not stable enough to withstand the force from being hit. Proposed changes include having a telescopic part in the bottom of the frame to act like legs, if a weight is added to these legs it should provide the needed stability to withstand the force from a hit. Due to the difficulties of manufacture the neck did not have a concave shape as intended, this flaw in manufacturing is something that would need to be changed in order to give the neck & face area the correct shape to train with. Another point related to the upper section is the shape of the head, when manufacturing it is difficult to produce the roundness as seen in the final design, the final product had too much of a cylindrical shaped head as opposed to a real head. The electronics were not able to be fully evaluated as they were only used to demonstrate how the electronics would work if the product was to be made in industry. Instead the placement and fitting of the electronics was evaluated, from this feedback it was clear that the circuit board would need to be placed somewhere where it is least likely to be hit, such as on the back between where the shoulder blades. The casing for the frames on the outer part also needed to be altered so he sloped upwards from to the LED as opposed to the current design which has no slope, the current design is a problem because it is possible to catch your hand on the cases if you punch near them. Another feature that should be include if it were to be manufactured in industry is some kind of visual display to show which sequence is running & at what speed etc. Along with this it would be useful to have a USB lead to connect a computer to the electronics, which could be used to install new sequences etc. These last two features would greatly improve the ease of use & usefulness of the product, however the electronics needed to achieve this would greatly increase the costs of the product. A small point regarding the support of the training aid was the use of stretchable cord in addition to the top support, the extra cord would help keep the training aid from swinging around too much when hit.

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