Presentation on theme: "Aggregate demand and aggregate supply model A model that explains short-run fluctuations in real GDP and the price level."— Presentation transcript:
1Aggregate demand and aggregate supply model A model that explains short-run fluctuations in real GDP and the price level.
2Aggregate Demand GDP has four components: consumption (C), investment (I), government purchases (G), and net exports (NX). If we let Y stand for GDP, we can write the following:Y = C + I + G + NXWhy Is the Aggregate Demand Curve Downward Sloping?The International-Trade Effect (substitution of foreign stuff for our stuff): When our price level rises, foreigners buy less of our exports and we import more things from abroad.When our price level rises, the real value of our monetary wealth declines. We feel poorer.The Wealth Effect: When our monetary wealth declines, we feel poorer and buy less.When our price level rises, real money balances (M/P) become scarcer and the interest rate rises.The Interest-Rate Effect: A higher interest rate discourages spending, investment spending in particular.
3What Shifts the Aggregate Demand Curve? Changes in Government Policies intended to achieve macroeconomic objectives: high employment, price stability, steady economic growth.Monetary policy Actions the Federal Reserve takes to manage the money supply and interest rates.Fiscal policy Changes in federal taxes and purchases.Changes in Expectations of Households and FirmsIf households become more optimistic about their future incomes, they are likely to increase their current consumption.Changes in Foreign VariablesIf foreign economies expand, foreign firms and households will buy more U.S. goods.If the dollar depreciates, foreign firms and households will buy more U.S. goods and U.S. firms and households will buy fewer foreign goods.Net exports will rise and the aggregate demand curve will shift to the right.
4Movements along the Aggregate Demand Curve versus Shifts of the Aggregate Demand Curve When taxes increase or government spending decreases, when the money supply is reduced or when people lose confidence, aggregate demand shifts to the leftWhen price rises, less domestic output is demanded owing to the international-trade effect, the wealth effect and the interest rate effect.
7The Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve LRAS reflects the economy’s output capacity at full employment of available resources using the best available technology.LRAS shifts outward as capital accumulates, the labor force grows and as technology improves.
8Aggregate Supply The Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve Why does the short-run aggregate supply curve slope upward?1 Contracts make some wages and prices “sticky.”2 Firms are often slow to adjust wages.3 Menu costs make some prices sticky.
9Variables That Shift the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve Expected Changes in the Future Price Level
10Aggregate SupplyVariables That Shift the Short-Run Aggregate Supply CurveAdjustments of Workers and Firms to Errors in Past Expectations about the Price LevelUnexpected Changes in the Price of an Important Natural ResourceSupply shock An unexpected event that causes the short-run aggregate supply curve to shift.
11Variables That Shift the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve
12Variables That Shift the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve Unexpected Changes in the Price of an Important Natural Resource
13Macroeconomic Equilibrium in the Long Run and the Short Run Long-Run Macroeconomic Equilibrium
14Macroeconomic Equilibrium in the Long Run and the Short Run Recessions, Expansions, and Supply ShocksBecause the full analysis of the aggregate demand and aggregate supply model can be complicated, we begin with a simplified case, using two assumptions:1 The economy has not been experiencing any inflation. The price level is currently 100, and workers and firms expect it to remain at 100 in the future.2 The economy is not experiencing any long-run growth. Potential real GDP is $10.0 trillion and will remain at that level in the future.
15Expansion...and restoration of full employment The Short-Run and Long- run Effects of an Increase in Aggregate Demand: Rising wages and prices shift AD inward
16Recession...and textbook restoration of full employment The Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of a Decrease in Aggregate Demand:Declining wages and prices shift AD outward
17Making the ConnectionDoes It Matter What Causes a Decline in Aggregate Demand?The collapse in spending on housing added to the severity of the 2007–2009 recession.Spending on residential construction has declined prior to every recession since 1955.
18Macroeconomic Equilibrium in the Long Run and the Short Run Recessions, Expansions, and Supply ShocksSupply ShockStagflation A combination of inflation and recession, usually resulting from a supply shock.
19Macroeconomic Equilibrium in the Long Run and the Short Run Supply Shock StagflationThe Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of a Supply Shock
20A Dynamic Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Model We can create a dynamic aggregate demand and aggregate supply model by making three changes to the basic model...but we won’tRealistically,• Potential real GDP increases continually, shifting the long-run aggregate supply curve to the right.• During most years, the aggregate demand curve will be shifting to the right.• Except during periods when workers and firms expect high rates of inflation, the short-run aggregate supply curve will be shifting to the right as productivity increases.
21K e y T e r m s Aggregate demand and aggregate supply model Aggregate demand curveFiscal policy Long-run aggregate supply curveMenu costsMonetary policyShort-run aggregate supply curve StagflationSupply shock
22Macroeconomic Schools of Thought Keynesian revolution The name given to the widespread acceptance during the 1930s and 1940s of John Maynard Keynes’s macroeconomic model and activist policy prescriptions.These alternative schools of thought use models that differ significantly from the standard aggregate demand and aggregate supply model. We can briefly consider each of the three major alternative models:1 The monetarist model2 The new classical model3 The real business cycle model
23Macroeconomic Schools of Thought The Monetarist ModelThe monetarist model—also known as the neo-Quantity Theory of Money model—was developed beginning in the 1940s by Milton Friedman, an economist at the University of Chicago who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1976.Monetary growth rule A plan for increasing the quantity of money at a fixed rate that does not respond to changes in economic conditions.Monetarism The macroeconomic theories of Milton Friedman and his followers; particularly the idea that the quantity of money should be increased at a constant rate.
24Macroeconomic Schools of Thought The New Classical ModelThe new classical model was developed in the mid-1970s by a group of economists including Nobel laureate Robert Lucas of the University of Chicago, Thomas Sargent of New York University, and Robert Barro of Harvard University.New classical macroeconomics The macroeconomic theories of Robert Lucas and others, particularly the idea that workers and firms have rational expectations.
25Macroeconomic Schools of Thought The Real Business Cycle ModelBeginning in the 1980s, some economists, including Nobel laureates Finn Kydland of Carnegie Mellon University and Edward Prescott of Arizona State University, argued that Lucas was correct in assuming that workers and firms formed their expectations rationally and that wages and prices adjust quickly to supply and demand but wrong about the source of fluctuations in real GDP.Real business cycle model A macroeconomic model that focuses on real, rather than monetary, causes of the business cycle.
26Making the Connection Karl Marx: Capitalism’s Severest Critic … or most perceptive analyst?Karl Marx predicted that a final economic crisis would lead to the collapse of the market system.