Presentation on theme: "T OPIC A S ECTIONS A.2-A.3 Energy in Human Diets Special Issues in Human Nutrition."— Presentation transcript:
T OPIC A S ECTIONS A.2-A.3 Energy in Human Diets Special Issues in Human Nutrition
V OCABULARY L IST Cholesterol Carbohydrate Protein Diet Fat Nutrition Diabetes Obese Overweight Underweight
A.2.1 C OMPARE THE ENERGY CONTENT PER 100 G OF CARBOHYDRATE, FAT AND PROTEIN. Energy content Carbohydrate = 1,760 KJ per 100g Protein = 1,720 KJ per 100g Fats = 4,000 KJ per 100g See p in the Campbell book
A.2.2 C OMPARE THE MAIN DIETARY SOURCES OF ENERGY IN DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS Different regions of the world have different resources, especially when it comes to dietary sources. Because of this different ethnic groups have different diets.
R EGIONAL F OOD P YRAMIDS Asian Diet Pyramid Latin American Diet Pyramid
R EGIONAL F OOD P YRAMIDS Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Vegetarian Diet Pyramid
R ECOMMENDED AMOUNTS OF NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF A DIET FOR 15 – 18- YEAR - OLDS NutrientFemalesMales Protein45.0 g55.2 g Iron14.8 mg11.3 mg Calcium800 mg1000 mg Iodine140 μg130 μg Zinc7.0 mg9.5 mg Retinol600 μg700 μg Cyanocobalamin1.5 μg Ascorbic acid40 mg Fibre18 g
A.2.3 E XPLAIN THE POSSIBLE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF DIETS RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES, FATS AND PROTEINS Diets rich in carbohydrates – having a diet rich in carbohydrates greatly increases the blood sugar level in your body and can cause great problems for people with diabetes. Diets rich in fats – too much fat in a diet can increase the risk of heart disease and certain types of cancer. It can also cause people to become overweight or obese. Diets rich in proteins – by having a diet rich in protein, the kidneys will have to work overtime to try and flush the toxins out of the body. Because of the extra work that the kidneys have to do the body then becomes dehydrated. This puts extra stress on the heart and even more on the kidneys, which can cause severe health problems. See p in the Campbell book
A.2.4 O UTLINE THE FUNCTION OF THE APPETITE CONTROL CENTRE IN THE BRAIN Hormones are produced by the pancreas and small intestine after eating and by adipose tissue in response to fat storage. These pass to an appetite control centre in the brain, which makes the person feel that they have eaten enough.
H OW THE BRAIN CONTROLS EATING A person’s appetite is controlled by the hypothalamus The hypothalamus is shown in the picture to the left
A.2.5 C ALCULATE THE BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) FROM THE BODY MASS AND HEIGHT OF A PERSON Equations for calculating a person’s BMI SI Units = Weight (kg) Height 2 (m 2 ) US Units = Weight (lbs) 703 Height 2 (in 2 )
A.2.6 D ISTINGUISH, USING THE BODY MASS INDEX, BETWEEN BEING UNDERWEIGHT, NORMAL WEIGHT, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE BMI Categories: Underweight = <18.5 Normal weight = Overweight = Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
A.2.7 O UTLINE THE REASONS FOR INCREASING RATES OF CLINICAL OBESITY IN SOME COUNTRIES, INCLUDING AVAILABILITY OF CHEAP HIGH - ENERGY FOODS, LARGE PORTIONS SIZES, INCREASING USE OF VEHICLES FOR TRANSPORT, AND A CHANGE FROM ACTIVE TO SEDENTARY OCCUPATIONS The increasing amount of availability of cheap high-energy foods contribute to the increasing rates of clinical obesity as people continue to eat non nutritious foods because they are more affordable The larger portion sizes which food now comes in causes people to over eat thus become obese Increase in the use of vehicles for transportation and the change from active to sedentary occupations adds to the growing rates of obesity because people are getting less exercise than they need to stay healthy See p in the Campbell book
A.2.8 O UTLINE THE CONSEQUENCES OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA Loss of menstrual periods Lack of energy and weakness Feeling cold all the time Dry, yellowish skin Constipation and abdominal pain Restlessness and insomnia Dizziness, fainting, and headaches Growth of fine hair all over the body and face
A.3.1 D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK AND ARTIFICIAL MILK USED FOR BOTTLE - FEEDING BABIES VitaminHuman MilkArtificial Milk A 6465 ug/100g D ug/100g C mg/100g E ug/100g B1 (thiamin)14068 ug/100g B2 (riboflavin)36101 ug/100g Pantothenic acid ug/100g Biotin ug/100g Nicotinic acid (niacin) ug/100g Folic Acid5.210 ug/100g Vitamin B ug/100g Vitamin B61141 ug/100g
A.3.2 D ISCUSS THE BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING There are many benefits as well as some disadvantages of breastfeeding a baby. Some of the benefits are that the breast milk will fight infections, give nutrients to the baby and ease its digestion, breast milk is free, it can have different tastes based on what the mother eats, it is convenient, it prevents obesity, and it provides the baby with “skin-to-skin” contact.
A.3.3 O UTLINE THE CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF TYPE II DIABETES Type 2 diabetes is caused by a complicated interplay of genes, environment, insulin abnormalities, increased glucose production in the liver, increased fat breakdown, and possibly defective hormonal secretions in the intestine. The recent dramatic increase indicates that lifestyle factors (obesity and sedentary lifestyle) may be particularly important in triggering the genetic elements that cause this type of diabetes. Increased thirst. Increased hunger (especially after eating). Dry mouth. Nausea and occasionally vomiting. Frequent urination. Fatigue (weak, tired feeling). Blurred vision. Numbness or tingling of the hands or feet. Frequent infections of the skin, urinary tract or vagina. CausesSymptoms See p.968 in the Campbell book
A.3.4 E XPLAIN THE DIETARY ADVICE THAT SHOULD BE GIVEN TO A PATIENT WHO HAS DEVELOPED TYPE II DIABETES To the left is the recommended diabetic food pyramid. Maintain near-normal blood sugar levels Normalize the levels of fats and cholesterol in your blood Achieve and maintain a sensible body weight Encourage good health
A.3.5 D ISCUSS THE ETHICAL ISSUES CONCERNING THE EATING OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS, INCLUDING HONEY, EGGS, MILK AND MEAT Some of the ethical issues include taking the life of other animals for food, justifying the pain caused to the animals in transport and slaughter, justifying the suffering of animals just to fix crowded conditions, taking animals from their natural habitats, is the pollution caused by fish farming acceptable.
A.3.6 E VALUATE THE BENEFITS OF REDUCING DIETARY CHOLESTEROL IN LOWERING THE RISK OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE having a diet rich in cholesterol greatly increases the risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD). A 10% increase in blood cholesterol level causes a 30% increase in the risk of death from CHD. By reducing the levels of dietary cholesterol you reduce the chances of coronary heart disease. See p. 885 in the Campbell book
A.3.7 D ISCUSS THE CONCEPT OF FOOD MILES AND THE REASONS FOR CONSUMERS CHOOSING FOODS TO MINIMIZE FOOD MILES Food miles are simply a measure of how far a food item has been transported from its site of production to its site of consumption. Transport of food causes air pollution, traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions. Transport of food also allows continuity of supply and increased choice for consumers.