2NarrativesPersonal, political, historical, legal, medical narratives: narrative’s power to capture certain truths and experiences in special ways - unlike other modes of explanation and analysis such as statistics, descriptions, summaries, or reasoning via conceptual abstractions
3The spectrum of fiction fact – fiction – truth? History Realism Romance Fantasy Realism vs romance: a matter of perception vs a matter of vision two principal ways fiction can be related to lifeRealism Romance
4Literary narrative fiction literature: art of language kinds of Iiterature: poetry, drama, narrative fiction prose: from Latin prosa or proversa oratio =‘straightforward discourse’ M. Jourdain: I've been speaking in PROSE all along! Moliere ( ), Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
5Literary conventionsan agreement between artist and audience as to the significance of features appearing in a work of art knowledge of conventions = literary competence narrative: tells of real or imagined events; tells a story fiction: an imagined creation in verse/prose/drama story: (imagined) events or happenings, involving a conflict plot: arrangement of action → structure
6Literary, narrative, fictional: distinct features, do not presuppose each otherWhere do we place lyric poetry?Marie-Laure Ryan, Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence, and Narrative Theory. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP, 1991
8The history of fictionIan Watt, The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (1957)Dale Spender, Mothers of the Novel (1988)Margaret Anne Doody, The True Story of the Novel (1996)
9Novel In: J. A. Cuddon: Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. London: Penguin, 1999 Derived from Italian novella, 'tale, piece of news‘applied to a wide variety of writingsonly common attribute is that they are extended pieces of prose fictionThe length of novels varies greatlywhen is a novel not a novel or a long short-story or a short novel or a novella?Fewer and fewer rulesin contemporary practice a novel is between words and, say,
10Cuddon Novel The actual term 'novel' has had a variety of meanings and implications at different stages.From roughly the 15th to the 18th c. its meaning tended toderive from the Italian novella and the Spanish novela (theFrench term nouvelle, is closely related)The term (often used in a plural sense) denoted short stories ortales of the kind one finds in Boccaccio's Decameron (c. 134951). Nowadays we would classify all the contents of these asshort stories.
11Cuddon Novel /noveltyThe term denoted a prose narrative about characters and theiractions in what was recognizably everyday life and usually in thepresent, with the emphasis on things being 'new' or a 'novelty'.It was used in contradistinction to 'romance'.In the 19th c. the concept of 'novel' was enlarged.
12Cuddon Novel A form of story or prose narrative containing characters, action and incident and, perhaps, aplot
13Cuddon Novel The form - susceptible to change and development Pliable and adaptable to a seemingly endlessvariety of topic and themesA wide range of sub-species or categories.
14Cuddon Novel The subject matter of the novel eludes classification. A number of these classifications shade off into each other.For example, psychological novel is a term which embracesmany books; proletarian, propaganda and thesis novels tend tohave much in common; the picaresque narrative is often a novelof adventure; a saga novel may also be a regional novel.
15Cuddon Novel The origins of the genre are obscure but in the time of the XIIth Dynasty MiddleKingdom (c BC) Egyptians were writingfiction of a kind which one would describe as anovel today
16Cuddon Novel From Classical times Daphnis and Chloe (2nd c. BC) by LongusThe Golden Ass (2nd c. AD) by ApuleiusSatyricon (1st c. AD) of Petronius ArbiterMost of these are concerned with love and contain therudiments of novels as we understand them today
17Cuddon Novel Oriental prose fiction Arabian Nights‘ Entertainments, or The Thousand and OneNights, 10th c. the collection, collected and established as agroup of stories probably by an Egyptian professional story-tellerat some time between the 14th and 16th c.Became known in Europe early in the 18th c., since when theyhave had a considerable influence.
18Cuddon Novel Collections of novella or short tales Italy - Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron (1349–52, revised 1370–1371)had much influence on Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales (late 14th c.)Matteo Bandello’s Le Novelle (written between and 1560)France -Marguerite of Navarre‘ Heptaméron (published in 1558)These were integrated short stories but important as they werein proseIn their method of narration and in their creation anddevelopment of character they are forerunners of the modernnovel
19Cuddon NovelUntil the 14th c. most of the literature of entertainment (and thenovel is usually intended as an entertainment) was confined tonarrative verse, particularly the epic and the romance.Romance eventually yielded the word roman, which is the termfor novel in most European languages.In some ways the novel is a descendant of the medievalromances, which, in the first place, like the epic, were written inverse and then in prose (e.g. Malory's Morte D'Arthur, 1485).Verse narratives had been supplanted by prose narratives by theend of the 17th c.
20Cuddon NovelSpain - was ahead of the rest of Europe in the development ofthe novel form.Cervantes's Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605, 1615) satirizedchivalry and a number of the earlier novelsIn France Rabelais's Gargantua (1534) and Pantagruel (1532)can be classed as novels of phantasy, or mythopoeic
21Cuddon Novel England, end of the 15th c., extended prose narrative: John Lyly's Euphues (in two parts, 1578 and 1580Sir Philip Sidney's pastoral romance Arcadia (1590).1719 – Daniel Defoe published his story of adventure RobinsonCrusoe, one in a long tradition of desert island fictionDefoe's other two main contributions to the novel form wereMoll Flanders (1722), a sociological novel, and A Journal of thePlague Year (1722) – a reconstruction and thus a piece ofhistorical fiction
22Books on FictionBooth, Wayne: The Rhetoric of Fiction. Second edition. London: Penguin, 1991 (1983)Lodge, David: The Art of Fiction. London: Penguin, 1992Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith: Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. London and New York: Methuen, 1983
23Sub-genres Integrated short stories Arabian Nights' Entertainments, or The Thousand and One Nights,Boccaccio: DecameronJames Joyce: Dubliners
24Sub-genres Romance any sort of stroy of chivalry or of love Cervantes: Don Quixote ( )Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (14th c.)Thomas Malory: Le Morte D’Arthur (15th c.)Pastoral romanceLongus: Daphnis and Chloe (2nd c. A.D.)Philip Sidney: Arcadia (1590)Anti-pastoral:Thomas Hardy: Tess of the d’Urbevilles (1891), Jude the Obscure (1895)
25Sub-genres Picaresque novel tells the life of a knave or a picaroon who is the servant of severel mastersDaniel Defoe: Moll Flanders (1722)Henry Fielding: Jonathan Wild (1743)
26Sub-genres Novel of adventure / desert island novel (related to te picaresque novel and the romance)Daniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe (1719)R.L. Stevenson: Treasure Island (1883)Mark Twain: Tom Sawyer (1876)Huckleberry Finn (1885)James Fenimore Cooper: The Last of the Mohicans (1826)
27Sub-genres Gothic novel a type of romance, popular from the 1760s until the 1820s, has terror and cruelty as main themes, impact on the ghost story and the horror storyHorace Walpole: The Castle of Otranto (1764Ann Radcliffe: Mysteries of Udolpho (1794)Mary Shelley: Frankenstein (1818)Jane Austen: Northanger Abbey (1818)Charles Dickens: Great Expectations (1861)R. L. Stevenson: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886)Dracula, doppelgänger
28Sub-genres Epistolary novel in the form of letters, popular in the 18th c.Samuel Richardson: Pamela (1740) and ClarissaHarlowe (1747, 1748)Tobias Smollett: Humphrey Clinker (1771)
29Sub-genres Sentimental novel / novel of sentimentality popular in the 18th c., distresses of the virtuousSamuel Richardson: Pamela (1740)Oliver Goldsmith: The Vicar of Wakefield (1766)Sentimentality in fictionLaurence Sterne: A Sentimental Journey (1768)
30Sub-genres Historical novel a form of fictional narrative which reconstructs history imaginativelyWalter Scott: Waverly (1814)William Makepeace Thackeray: Vanity Fair ( )Robert Graves: I, Claudius (1934)William Golding: Rites of Passage (1980)
31Sub-genres Documentary novel based on documentary evidence in the shape of newspapee article, etc.Truman Capote: In Cold Blood (1966)Graham Greene: The Quiet American (1955)
32Sub-genresKey novelactual persons are presented under fictitious namesAldous Huxley: Point Counter Point (1928) (D. H. Lawrence)
33Sub-genres Thesis / sociological / propaganda novel treats of a social, political, religious problemHarriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)The condition of England novel /regional novelCharles Dickens: Hard Times (1854)Charlotte Brontë: Shirley (1849)
34Sub-genresUtopia[gr. Ou + topos = no place and eutopia = place where all is well]Thomas More: Utopia (1516)George Orwell: Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)Jonathan Swift: Gulliver’s Travels (1726, 1735)William Golding: Lord of the Flies (1954)Anti-utopia, dystopiaScience fictionPhantasy or fantasy
35Sub-genres Campus novel has a university campus as setting Mary McCarthy: The Groves of Academe (1952)Kingsley Amis: Lucky Jim (1954)David Lodge: Changing Places (1975)
36Sub-genres The saga / chronicle novel narrative about the life of a large familyJohn Galsworthy: Forsyte Saga ( )
37Sub-genresTime novelemploys stream of consciousness technique, time is used as a themeJames Joyce: Ulysses (1922)Marcel Proust: A la recherche du temps perdu ( )
38Sub-genres Psychological novel concerned with emotional, mental lives of the charactersVirginia Woolf: Mrs Dalloway (1925)
39Building blocks of narrative types of character (»roles)types of eventtypes of lack and restorationtypes of getting from beginning to end(How do you know it is the end of the story?)types of settingtypes of narrator
40Characterscharacterization: round vs flat characters E.M. Forster, Aspects of the Novel stereotypes: characters based on conscious or unconscious cultural assumptions that sex, age, ethnic or national identification, occupation, marital status and so on, are predictably accompanied by certain character traits, actions, even values
41Arrangement of eventswith a particular kind of beginning and ending orientation, closure, codausually told for a purposetypically about change:situation A changes to situation Black leads to restoration
42Structurestructure: connecting elements, repetition, parallelism selection, connection, ordering of information leading to a recognition moving to illuminate the beginning by the ending
43SettingThe space where the narrative takes place: rural setting, urban setting, nature scenes, country houses etc. Settings often echo or emphasize other features: Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights (1847) Yorkshire moors Wuthering Heights ↔ Thrushcross Grange Earnshaws Lintons harsh, rough warm, soft, civilised
44Space and Time James Joyce, Ulysses (1922) Dublin, 16 June 1904 Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway (1925)London,a single day in June,after WWI
45Narrator, narrationnarrator: one who tells a story within/outside the space and time of story Who tells the story? To whom? Why? How? narration: narrative perspective: point of view author ≠ author's persona (mask) ≠ narrator (Samuel Clemens vs Mark Twain)
46Narrator, narration, narrative account of a sequence of connected eventstold by a narratorwhat happened vs how it is told'story' 'narration'Narration - rearranges the order of eventse.g., flashback:historical time vs narrated order- sets up relations between eventse.g., cause and effect
47Narrative perspective viewing aspect: focuslike a movie camera:choosing, framing, emphasizing, distorting limited/unlimited (omniscient narrator)stand back: dramatic focusverbal aspect: voice
48Point of view visual perspective ideological framework basic types of narration: 1st person (I-narration)3rd person (they-narration)e.g., 'window' on text:seems objectiveinternal vs externalrestricted knowledge vs unrestricted knowledge(seemed, looked as if)texts with instability of point of view: watch out for WHO experiences and WHAT is experienced
49Focalization external focalization: unidentified narrator character focalization: a character experiencesfocalizer: the one who is lookingfocalized: what is being focussed onexpression and construction of types of consciousness and self-consciousnessShifting narrative viewpoints, several narrators:Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights (1847)
50NarratologyThe study of narrative in literature Early examples in the 20th century: Vladimir Propp (Russian Formalist) Morphology of the Folktale (1928) Claude Lévi-Strauss (French Structuralist) Anthropologie Structurale (1958) (myths) Gérard Genette Narrative Discourse (1972)
51Gérard Genette’s system Based on the distinction between story and plot (fabula and syuzhet in Russian formalism) - récit (the chronological order of events in a text or narrative) - histoire (the sequence in which events actually occur) - narration (the act of narrating) (Gérard Genette, Narrative Discourse, 1972)
52Genette’s systemnarrative: the result of the interaction of its component levels 3 basic kinds of narrator: - narrator is absent from his own narrative ((‘heterodiegetic narrator’)) - narrator is inside his narrative (1st person) ((‘homodiegetic narrator’)) - narrator is inside his narrative and also main character ((‘autodiegetic narrator’))
53Roland Barthes ( )France: from structuralism to poststructuralism attempt to describe narrative as a formal system based on the model of a grammar ‘The death of the Author’ (essay from 1967) (against the concept of the author as a way of forcing a meaning onto a text) S/Z (1970) a critical reading of Balzac’s Sarrasine text open to interpretation
54TaskWhat can you notice about the following excerpts? (Can you guess the period, the author, the work?) How is the weather defining the beginning of the book in Chapter 1? What do we find out about the narrator from the way Mrs Fairfax is introduced in Ch 12? How is the introduction of the people in Moor House different in Ch 30? Do you notice anything special about the way the last chapter, Ch 38 begins?
55Chapter 1There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. We had been wandering, indeed, in the leafless shrubbery an hour in the morning; but since dinner (Mrs Reed, when there was no company, dined early), the cold winter wind had brought with it clouds so sombre, and a rain so penetrating, that further outdoor exercise was now out of the question. (Penguin Classics edition, p 39)
56Chapter 12The promise of a smooth career, which my first calm introduction to Thornfield Hall seemed to pledge, was not belied on a longer acquaintance with the place and its inmates. Mrs. Fairfax turned out to be what she appeared, a placid-tempered, kind-natured woman, of competent education and average intelligence. My pupil was a lovely child; who had been spoilt and indulged (140)
57Chapter 30The more I knew of the inmates of Moor House, the better I liked them. In a few days I have so far recovered my health that I could sit up all day, and walk out sometimes. I could join with Diana and Mary in all their occupations, converse with them as much as they wished, and aid them when and where they would allow me. There was a reviving pleasure in this intercourse, of a kind now tasted by me for the first time – the pleasure arising from perfect congeniality of tastes, sentiments, and principles. (376)
58Chapter 38Reader, I married him. A quiet wedding we had: he and I, the parson and clerk, were alone present. When we got back from church, I went into the kitchen of the manor house, where Mary was cooking the dinner, and John cleaning the knives, and I said – ‘Mary, I have been married to Mr Rochester this morning.’ (474)