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Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell? 1. Stomach cell 2. Brain cell 3. Sperm Cell 4. Skin cell.

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Presentation on theme: "Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell? 1. Stomach cell 2. Brain cell 3. Sperm Cell 4. Skin cell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell? 1. Stomach cell 2. Brain cell 3. Sperm Cell 4. Skin cell

2 How many chromosomes are in your Somatic (body)cells?

3 Your somatic (body) cells have how many pairs of homologous chromosomes? pairs pairs pairs 4. 2 pairs 10 Response Counter

4 This is a picture of 1. Gamete 2. Chromatin 3. Duplicated chromosome 4. Karyotype 10 Response Counter

5 Human somatic cells contain _____ pair(s) of sex chromosomes. A. 22 B. 1 C. 23 D

6 Gametes are _________, meaning they contain one set of chromosomes. A. Diploid B. Haploid C. Triploid D. Monoploid 30

7 If an organism contains 14 chromosomes in each somatic cell, then its gametes each contain ____ chromosomes. A. 7 B. 14 C. 21 D

8 What is #1 in the picture? 1. Centromere 2. Centriole 3. Sister Chromatid 4. Chromatin 10 Response Counter

9 What is #2 in the picture? 1. Centromere 2. Chromosome 3. DNA 4. Chromatin 10 Response Counter

10 The Cell Cycle PARTS OF THE CELL CYCLE 1.Interphase G1 S G2 2.Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 3.Cytokinesis

11 Interphase 90% of cell life cycle  cell doing its “everyday job”  prepares for duplication if triggered Characteristics  nucleus well-defined  DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers

12 Interphase  G 1 – First stage after division Cell increases in size Doubles organelles Cells do everyday job

13 Interphase S – DNA synthesis occurs  DNA Replication takes place in the nucleus (copies chromosomes) G 2 – Growth & final preparations for division  Prepares for division  Proteins that aid in mitosis are made in this stage  Microtubules

14 Control of the Cell Apoptosis – Programmed cell death  Apoptosis & the cell cycle work together to maintain # of cells in the body (Homeostasis) Cell Checkpoints (Each controlled by proteins)  G 1 – Checks DNA for mutations after G 1  If ok the cell cycle goes on, if not… APOPTOSIS!  G 2 – Check to make sure DNA has been copied correctly  if DNA replicated correctly process moves to mitosis, if not… APOPTOSIS!  M Checkpoint – Checkpoint in mitosis/Checks that chromosomes are attached to spindle  Takes place between metaphase and anaphase  Ensures chromosomes have lined up correctly, if not…. APOPTOSIS!

15 Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth Why?? Checkpoints in cell cycle break down  Due to mutations in genes that produce proteins that control the checkpoints  Can cause tumors (mass of cells)  Malignant tumor – cancerous tumor that may spread to other areas of the body  Benign tumor – non-cancerous tumor  Biopsy- sample tissue is taken from tumor to determine if it is cancerous or not  Metastasis- the spreading of cancer from one part of the body to another

16 What is the DNA/protein complex called? (Hint: This is DNA when it is unwound) 1. Chromosomes 2. Chromatin 3. Chromatids 4. Centromere

17 In which stage of interphase does the cell replicate its DNA? 1. G1 2. G2 3. S

18 Programmed cell death is called 1. Mitosis 2. Cancer 3. Apoptosis 4. G0

19 Cell growth and final preparation for division occurs at which stage of interphase? 1. G1 2. S 3. G2

20 The Cell Cycle 1.Interphase 1.G1 2.S 3.G2 2.Mitosis (PMAT) 3. Cytokinesis

21 Mitosis – division of the nucleus 4 Parts (PMAT): Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

22 Prophase Chromatin (DNA) condenses into chromosomes Centrioles move to opposite poles of cell Microtubules extend from the centrioles to form mitotic spindle  Pull apart sister chromatids Nucleolus disappears Nuclear membrane breaks down Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers Pro = Prepare

23 Metaphase Spindle fibers align chromosomes along the middle of cell  Meta = Middle  metaphase plate  helps to ensure chromosomes separate properly  so each new nucleus receives only 1 copy of each chromosome

24 Anaphase Sister chromatids separate  move to opposite poles  pulled at centromeres  Ana = APART

25 Telophase Opposite of prophase The chromosomes are at the poles of the spindle. The spindle fibers disintegrate The nuclear membrane re-forms around the two sets of chromosomes. Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin again Telophase = looks like a Telephone or makes Two nuclei.

26 Cytokinesis Cell divides into two identical daughter cells Plant and animal cells divide the cytoplasm in different ways.

27 Cytokinesis (Plants) In plant cells, a new cell wall made of cellulose forms between the 2 new nuclei called the cell plate. When the new wall joins with the existing side wall, the 2 cells have become separate.

28 Cytokinesis (Animals) In animal cells, a ring of protein fibers forms around the cell equator and contacts, pinching the cell in half.


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