Presentation on theme: "Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell?"— Presentation transcript:
1Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell? Stomach cellBrain cellSperm CellSkin cell0 of 09
2How many chromosomes are in your Somatic (body)cells? 2332644610
3Your somatic (body) cells have how many pairs of homologous chromosomes? Response Counter10
4This is a picture of Gamete Chromatin Duplicated chromosome Karyotype Response Counter10
5Human somatic cells contain _____ pair(s) of sex chromosomes. 221234630
6Gametes are _________, meaning they contain one set of chromosomes. DiploidHaploidTriploidMonoploid30
7If an organism contains 14 chromosomes in each somatic cell, then its gametes each contain ____ chromosomes.714212830
8What is #1 in the picture? Centromere Centriole Sister Chromatid ChromatinResponse Counter10
9What is #2 in the picture? Centromere Chromosome DNA Chromatin 10 Response Counter10
10The Cell Cycle PARTS OF THE CELL CYCLE Interphase G1 S G2 Mitosis ProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophaseCytokinesis
11Interphase 90% of cell life cycle Characteristics cell doing its “everyday job”prepares for duplication if triggeredCharacteristicsnucleus well-definedDNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers
12Interphase G1 – First stage after division Cell increases in size Doubles organellesCells do everyday job9.1
13Interphase S – DNA synthesis occurs DNA Replication takes place in the nucleus (copies chromosomes)G2 – Growth & final preparations for divisionPrepares for divisionProteins that aid in mitosis are made in this stageMicrotubules9.1
14Control of the Cell Apoptosis – Programmed cell death Apoptosis & the cell cycle work together to maintain # of cells in the body (Homeostasis)Cell Checkpoints (Each controlled by proteins)G1 – Checks DNA for mutations after G1If ok the cell cycle goes on, if not… APOPTOSIS!G2 – Check to make sure DNA has been copied correctlyif DNA replicated correctly process moves to mitosis, if not… APOPTOSIS!M Checkpoint – Checkpoint in mitosis/Checks that chromosomes areattached to spindleTakes place between metaphase and anaphaseEnsures chromosomes have lined up correctly, if not…. APOPTOSIS!9.1
15Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth Why?? Checkpoints in cell cycle break downDue to mutations in genes that produce proteins that control the checkpointsCan cause tumors (mass of cells)Malignant tumor – cancerous tumor that may spread to other areas of the bodyBenign tumor – non-cancerous tumorBiopsy- sample tissue is taken from tumor to determine if it is cancerous or notMetastasis- the spreading of cancer from one part of the body to another
16Chromosomes Chromatin Chromatids Centromere What is the DNA/protein complex called? (Hint: This is DNA when it is unwound)ChromosomesChromatinChromatidsCentromere0 of 06
17In which stage of interphase does the cell replicate its DNA? 7
18Programmed cell death is called MitosisCancerApoptosisG00 of 2110
19Cell growth and final preparation for division occurs at which stage of interphase? 1
21Mitosis – division of the nucleus 4 Parts (PMAT):Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
22Prophase Chromatin (DNA) condenses into chromosomes Centrioles move to opposite poles of cellMicrotubules extend from the centrioles to form mitotic spindlePull apart sister chromatidsNucleolus disappearsNuclear membrane breaks downChromosomes attach to spindle fibersPro = Prepare
23Metaphase Spindle fibers align chromosomes along the middle of cell Meta = Middlemetaphase platehelps to ensure chromosomes separate properlyso each new nucleus receives only 1 copy of each chromosome
24Anaphase Sister chromatids separate move to opposite poles pulled at centromeresAna = APART
25Telophase Opposite of prophase The chromosomes are at the poles of the spindle.The spindle fibers disintegrateThe nuclear membrane re-forms around the two sets of chromosomes.Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin againTelophase = looks like a Telephone or makes Two nuclei.
26Cytokinesis Cell divides into two identical daughter cells Plant and animal cells divide the cytoplasm in different ways.
27Cytokinesis (Plants)In plant cells, a new cell wall made of cellulose forms between the 2 new nuclei called the cell plate.When the new wall joins with the existing side wall, the 2 cells have become separate.
28Cytokinesis (Animals) In animal cells, a ring of protein fibers forms around the cell equator and contacts, pinching the cell in half.