Presentation on theme: "Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Which of the following is an example of a haploid cell? Stomach cellBrain cellSperm CellSkin cell0 of 09
2 How many chromosomes are in your Somatic (body)cells? 2332644610
3 Your somatic (body) cells have how many pairs of homologous chromosomes? Response Counter10
4 This is a picture of Gamete Chromatin Duplicated chromosome Karyotype Response Counter10
5 Human somatic cells contain _____ pair(s) of sex chromosomes. 221234630
6 Gametes are _________, meaning they contain one set of chromosomes. DiploidHaploidTriploidMonoploid30
7 If an organism contains 14 chromosomes in each somatic cell, then its gametes each contain ____ chromosomes.714212830
8 What is #1 in the picture? Centromere Centriole Sister Chromatid ChromatinResponse Counter10
9 What is #2 in the picture? Centromere Chromosome DNA Chromatin 10 Response Counter10
10 The Cell Cycle PARTS OF THE CELL CYCLE Interphase G1 S G2 Mitosis ProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophaseCytokinesis
11 Interphase 90% of cell life cycle Characteristics cell doing its “everyday job”prepares for duplication if triggeredCharacteristicsnucleus well-definedDNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers
12 Interphase G1 – First stage after division Cell increases in size Doubles organellesCells do everyday job9.1
13 Interphase S – DNA synthesis occurs DNA Replication takes place in the nucleus (copies chromosomes)G2 – Growth & final preparations for divisionPrepares for divisionProteins that aid in mitosis are made in this stageMicrotubules9.1
14 Control of the Cell Apoptosis – Programmed cell death Apoptosis & the cell cycle work together to maintain # of cells in the body (Homeostasis)Cell Checkpoints (Each controlled by proteins)G1 – Checks DNA for mutations after G1If ok the cell cycle goes on, if not… APOPTOSIS!G2 – Check to make sure DNA has been copied correctlyif DNA replicated correctly process moves to mitosis, if not… APOPTOSIS!M Checkpoint – Checkpoint in mitosis/Checks that chromosomes areattached to spindleTakes place between metaphase and anaphaseEnsures chromosomes have lined up correctly, if not…. APOPTOSIS!9.1
15 Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth Why?? Checkpoints in cell cycle break downDue to mutations in genes that produce proteins that control the checkpointsCan cause tumors (mass of cells)Malignant tumor – cancerous tumor that may spread to other areas of the bodyBenign tumor – non-cancerous tumorBiopsy- sample tissue is taken from tumor to determine if it is cancerous or notMetastasis- the spreading of cancer from one part of the body to another
16 Chromosomes Chromatin Chromatids Centromere What is the DNA/protein complex called? (Hint: This is DNA when it is unwound)ChromosomesChromatinChromatidsCentromere0 of 06
17 In which stage of interphase does the cell replicate its DNA? 7
18 Programmed cell death is called MitosisCancerApoptosisG00 of 2110
19 Cell growth and final preparation for division occurs at which stage of interphase? 1
20 The Cell CycleInterphaseG1SG2Mitosis (PMAT)3. Cytokinesis
21 Mitosis – division of the nucleus 4 Parts (PMAT):Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
22 Prophase Chromatin (DNA) condenses into chromosomes Centrioles move to opposite poles of cellMicrotubules extend from the centrioles to form mitotic spindlePull apart sister chromatidsNucleolus disappearsNuclear membrane breaks downChromosomes attach to spindle fibersPro = Prepare
23 Metaphase Spindle fibers align chromosomes along the middle of cell Meta = Middlemetaphase platehelps to ensure chromosomes separate properlyso each new nucleus receives only 1 copy of each chromosome
24 Anaphase Sister chromatids separate move to opposite poles pulled at centromeresAna = APART
25 Telophase Opposite of prophase The chromosomes are at the poles of the spindle.The spindle fibers disintegrateThe nuclear membrane re-forms around the two sets of chromosomes.Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin againTelophase = looks like a Telephone or makes Two nuclei.
26 Cytokinesis Cell divides into two identical daughter cells Plant and animal cells divide the cytoplasm in different ways.
27 Cytokinesis (Plants)In plant cells, a new cell wall made of cellulose forms between the 2 new nuclei called the cell plate.When the new wall joins with the existing side wall, the 2 cells have become separate.
28 Cytokinesis (Animals) In animal cells, a ring of protein fibers forms around the cell equator and contacts, pinching the cell in half.