2 Skills Practice 1 9,434,880 mL 17.8 cases 0.333 pallet a) m b) 4.1x1010 c) 92,000 μm d) 91,600 nma) 2.229x107 b) 8.07x106 c) 5.41x1020 d) 1.12x107a) x1010 b) 3.51x10-9a) 235,400 b)
3 Skills Practice 2325.218,0000.01750.79028,910,000274.9x10121.86x105
4 Skills Practice 8 a) 21 b) Scandium (Sc) c) 22 Atoms of the same element (having the same number of protons) with a different number of neutrons.a) -2 b) sulfur c) 171;3+230B) ionsStrontium (Sr)Symbolneutronsprotonselectronsatomic #mass #𝐵 𝑎 +280565413625 56 𝑀 𝑛3125𝐴 𝑢1207919920 41 𝐶 𝑎 +221201841
5 Skills Practice 9 a) 74.92 amu b) Arsenic (As) a) amu b) Chromium (Cr)The most abundant is the one with a mass of amu.amu
6 Skills Practice 10Ground state: the normal energy level that an electron occupies. Excited state: when an electron has absorbed energy to occupy a higher energy level.7.11x10-8 m8.62x10-20 J3.68x10-19 Ja) 8.52x1014 Hz b) 5.65x10-19 Jf=7.68x1014 Hz wavelength= 3.91x10-7 m
7 Skills Practice 11There is no such thing as an f sublevel in the third energy level. Also, an f sublevel if it existed would have seven orbitals instead of four.8102Orbitals = 9 Electrons =18504p
8 Skills Practice 13 a. ends in: 3d b. ends in: 4dc. ends in: 4p2) a. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4b. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p3c. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23) Because of Hund’s Rule the 2p sublevel should look like: 1s 2s p4) Three
9 Skills Practice 14 a. 5 b. 2 c. 6 d. 8 e. 7 a. 2-8-3 b. 2-6 c. 2-8-6 Column 14 or IVAa. 5 dots b. 2 dots c. 4 dots d. 7 dots
10 Skills Practice 15 Abbreviated electron configurations: [Ar] 4s23d104p2[Xe] 6s2[Ar] 4s23d104p5[Xe]6s24f145d106p3[Ar] 4s23d5[Xe]6s24f145d9Column 6 (or VIB)5th row3rd rowEach d sublevel can hold 10 electonsEach p sublevel can hold 6 electrons
11 Skills Practice 16The second energy level feels a +13 charge and the outer energy level feels a +5 charge.Sulfur’s outer level of electrons feels a +6 charge pulling on it from the nucleus. Silicon’s outer level feels a weaker charge of +4 and therefore it is not pulled as close to the nucleus as sulfur’s outer level.Chlorine is lower in the periodic table which would indicate that it is larger than lithium, but it is also located further to the right which would indicate that it is smaller.a) S, Al, Mg, Na b) C, Si, Sn, Pb c) Br, Se, Ca, K d) C, B, Be, Mg, Ca e) Cl, P, Al, Ga f) Ne, O, S, Se
12 Skills Practice 171. It is relatively hard to remove the first electon. 2. a) Ca, As, Se, Br b) Bi, As, P, N c) Ga, Al, Si, S d) K, Li, C, O e) Po, Te, S, O e) In, Sn, Te, I 3. Beryllium; After its two outermost electrons are removed, the next electron would need to be removed from an inner energy level, which is much more difficult. 4. Larger atoms tend to have smaller first ionization energies because the outer electrons are farther from the nucleus. Since the electrons are farther, the force of attraction from the nucleus is less.
13 Skills Practice 18 Fluorine atom: 2-7; Fluorine ion: 2-8 0; all atoms have a neutral charge.+2-2, -1, -1, +2, +1, +2, +3, -3, -2, -1, +2, +1
14 Skills Practice 19 Ion Symbol Formulas Names Rewrite Na2SMg+2AlCl3Rb+1Ca3P2F-1BaOAl+3NamesS-2Sodium sulfideRewriteAluminum chlorideBaSCalcium phosphideRb3NBarium oxideLiCl+1, +2, +3, +/-4, -3, -2, -1AlNMgBr2Al2O3
20 Skills Practice 30 7.02 x 1024 molecules 1121 grams Quantity of particles needed to equal an element’s atomic mass in grams.1180 grams183.4 amu; g/mol3.32 moles1.22 x 1024 atoms78.6 g/mol4655 grams1.81 x 1024 molecules
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