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General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications 9 th Edition Petrucci/Harwood/Herring/Madura Chapter 18 Solubility and Complex Ion Solubility Dr. Travis.

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Presentation on theme: "General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications 9 th Edition Petrucci/Harwood/Herring/Madura Chapter 18 Solubility and Complex Ion Solubility Dr. Travis."— Presentation transcript:

1 General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications 9 th Edition Petrucci/Harwood/Herring/Madura Chapter 18 Solubility and Complex Ion Solubility Dr. Travis D. Fridgen Memorial University of Newfoundland © 2007 Pearson Education

2 Which of the following compounds is expected to not dissolve to a great extent in water? (ie. remember solubility rules). 1. NaOH 2. CaCl 2 3. K 3 PO 4 5. AgNO 3 4. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2

3 Which of the following compounds is expected to not dissolve to a great extent in water? (ie. remember solubility rules). 1. NaOH 2. CaCl 2 3. K 3 PO 4 5. AgNO 3 4. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2

4 Which of the following lead (II) salts will dissolve to the greatest extent in water? (No calculators) 1. PbSO 4, K sp = 1.7x PbI 2, K sp = 6.5x PbCrO 4, K sp = 1.8x PbS, K sp = 2.5x Pb 3 (AsO 4 ) 2, K sp = 4.0x10 -36

5 Which of the following lead (II) salts will dissolve to the greatest extent in water? (No calculators) 1. PbSO 4, K sp = 1.7x PbI 2, K sp = 6.5x PbCrO 4, K sp = 1.8x PbS, K sp = 2.5x Pb 3 (AsO 4 ) 2, K sp = 4.0x10 -36

6 Gallium(III) hydroxide, Ga(OH) 3, is a sparingly soluble ionic compound with a K sp of about 1x What is the approximate total concentration of ions in a saturated solution of Fe(OH) 3 ? (No calculators, do a back of the envelope calculation). 1. 1x10 -8 M 5. 2x M 2. 1x10 -9 M 3. 4x10 -9 M 4. 4x M

7 Gallium(III) hydroxide, Ga(OH) 3, is a sparingly soluble ionic compound with a K sp of about 1x What is the approximate total concentration of ions in a saturated solution of Fe(OH) 3 ? (No calculators, do a back of the envelope calculation). 1. 1x10 -8 M 5. 2x M 2. 1x10 -9 M 3. 4x10 -9 M 4. 4x M

8 A saturated solution of which of the following hydroxides has the lowest pH? 4. Al(OH) 3, K sp = 3.0x Cd(OH) 2, K sp = 7.2x CuOH, K sp = 2.1x Fe(OH) 3, K sp = 2.8x NaOH

9 A saturated solution of which of the following hydroxides has the lowest pH? 4. Al(OH) 3, K sp = 3.0x Cd(OH) 2, K sp = 7.2x CuOH, K sp = 2.1x Fe(OH) 3, K sp = 2.8x NaOH

10 Saturated solutions of which of the following ionic compounds have the highest boiling point? 1. Cd(OH) 2 (K sp = 5.9x ) 2. Zn(OH) 2 (K sp = 1.1x ) 3. Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (K sp = 1.0x ) 4. AgCN (K sp = 7.2x ) 5. AgI(K sp = 8.5x )

11 Saturated solutions of which of the following ionic compounds have the highest boiling point? 1. Cd(OH) 2 (K sp = 5.9x ) 2. Zn(OH) 2 (K sp = 1.1x ) 3. Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (K sp = 1.0x ) 4. AgCN (K sp = 7.2x ) 5. AgI(K sp = 8.5x )

12 Many dentists recommend fluoride treatment which replaces the hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, in tooth enamel with fluoroapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F. This decreases the solubility of tooth enamel by more than two orders of magnitude from 5.2x10 -5 M to 1.2x10 -7 M. What is the K sp for fluoroapatite? x x x x x10 -62

13 Many dentists recommend fluoride treatment which replaces the hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, in tooth enamel with fluoroapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F. This decreases the solubility of tooth enamel by more than two orders of magnitude from 5.2x10 -5 M to 1.2x10 -7 M. What is the K sp for fluoroapatite? x x x x x10 -62

14 A solution of lead(II) nitrate was made slightly basic and was found to precipitate out lead(II) hydroxide. After making the solution very basic the white precipitate disappeared and it was determined that the dominant species in solution (besides hydroxide) was Pb(OH) 3 -. The K sp of Pb(OH) 2 and the formation constant of Pb(OH) 3 - are 1x and 4x10 14, respectively. Which of the following is correct for the net ionic equation for the reaction which takes place?

15

16 To improve the quality of X-ray photos used in the diagnosis of intestinal disorders the patient drinks an aqueous suspension of BaSO 4 before having the X-ray. However, BaSO 4 is slightly soluble (K sp = 1.1x and Ba 2+ is toxic. Which of the following compounds would be the best to add to the suspension in order to make it less concentrated in Ba 2+ and less toxic to the patient? 1. NaNO 3 2. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 3. NaCl 4. Na 2 SO 4 5. H 2 SO 4

17 To improve the quality of X-ray photos used in the diagnosis of intestinal disorders the patient drinks an aqueous suspension of BaSO 4 before having the X-ray. However, BaSO 4 is slightly soluble (K sp = 1.1x and Ba 2+ is toxic. Which of the following compounds would be the best to add to the suspension in order to make it less concentrated in Ba 2+ and less toxic to the patient? 1. NaNO 3 2. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 3. NaCl 4. Na 2 SO 4 5. H 2 SO 4

18 Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) is only sparingly soluble in water. Which of the following will increase the solubility of Mg(OH) 2 ? 1. Add Mg(NO 3 ) 2 2. Add KOH 3. Add CaCl 2 4. Add HCl 5. Add NH 3

19 Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) is only sparingly soluble in water. Which of the following will increase the solubility of Mg(OH) 2 ? 1. Add Mg(NO 3 ) 2 2. Add KOH 3. Add CaCl 2 4. Add HCl 5. Add NH 3

20 Which of the following substances would be more soluble if the pH of the solution decreases? 1. All are more soluble at lower pH. 2. None become more soluble at lower pH. 3. i) and iii). 4. i), iv), and v). 5. i), ii), iv), and v). i) Ag 3 PO 4 ii) Hg 2 Cl 2 iii) PbI 2 iv) Cd(OH) 2 v) PbS

21 Which of the following substances would be more soluble if the pH of the solution decreases? 1. All are more soluble at lower pH. 2. None become more soluble at lower pH. 3. i) and iii). 4. i), iv), and v). 5. i), ii), iv), and v). i) Ag 3 PO 4 ii) Hg 2 Cl 2 iii) PbI 2 iv) Cd(OH) 2 v) PbS

22 One mole (~107 g) of Fe(OH) 3 was dumped into 1 L of water. The K sp of Fe(OH) 3 is 4.0x and obviously only a small fraction dissolved. After one mole of KCN was dumped into the mixture all of the Fe(OH) 3 dissolved. 1. True 2. False 3. Not enough information to determine a)b)

23 One mole (~107 g) of Fe(OH) 3 was dumped into 1 L of water. The K sp of Fe(OH) 3 is 4.0x and obviously only a small fraction dissolved. After one mole of KCN was dumped into the mixture all of the Fe(OH) 3 dissolved. 1. True 2. False 3. Not enough information to determine a)b)

24 To an aqueous solution containing NaCl a solution containing AgNO 3 was added. To the resulting solution, an ammonia (NH 3 ) solution was added. Finally a strong nitric acid solution was added. Which of the following is best representative of what one would observe for this experiment?

25 To an aqueous solution containing NaCl a solution containing AgNO 3 was added. To the resulting solution, an ammonia (NH 3 ) solution was added. Finally a strong nitric acid solution was added. Which of the following is best representative of what one would observe for this experiment?

26 A series of ionic compounds, A, B, and C, were added to a solution of AgNO 3. The qualitative results are as in the diagram to the right. Compounds, A, B, and C, respectively, are: precipitate ABC 1. NaNO 3, HBr, NaCl 2. NaCl, NH 3, CH 3 COONa 3. NaBr, NH 3, HNO 3 4. NaCl, NH 4 Cl, NaNO 3

27 A series of ionic compounds, A, B, and C, were added to a solution of AgNO 3. The qualitative results are as in the diagram to the right. Compounds, A, B, and C, respectively, are: precipitate ABC 1. NaNO 3, HBr, NaCl 2. NaCl, NH 3, CH 3 COONa 3. NaBr, NH 3, HNO 3 4. NaCl, NH 4 Cl, NaNO 3


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