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LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-1 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Bank reserves: Currency held by banks in their vaults plus their deposits at Federal Reserve Banks. Required reserves: Funds that a depository institution must hold in reserve against specified deposits as vault cash or deposits with Federal Reserve Banks. Excess reserves: Amount of funds held by a depository institution in its account at a Federal Reserve Bank in excess of its required reserve balance. Interest: The price of using someone else's money. Interest rate: The percentage of the amount of a loan that is charged for a loan. Terms to Know
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-2 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Federal funds market: The market in which banks can borrow or lend reserves, allowing banks temporarily short of their required reserves to borrow from banks that have excess reserves. Federal funds rate: The interest rate at which a depository institution lends funds that are immediately available to another depository institution overnight. Federal Reserve System: The central bank system of the United States. Terms to Know
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-3 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Monetary policy: The actions of a central bank to influence the cost and availability of money and credit to achieve the national economic goals. Tools that the Fed has in its toolbox to influence money supply/interest rates: Discount rate: The interest rate charged by the Fed to banks for loans obtained through the Fed's discount window. Open-market operations: The buying and selling of government securities through primary dealers by the Fed in order to influence the money supply. Reserve requirements: Funds that Banks must hold in cash, either in their vaults or on deposit at a Reserve Bank. Interest on reserves: Interest paid by Federal Reserve Banks on required and excess reserves held by banks. Terms to Know
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-4 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Treasurer gets the Treasurer’s Balance Sheet for the Class. Federal Reserve (teacher) Primary Dealers (three students) Investors (six students) Banks (six students) The Federal Reserve gets money—reserves of $60,000— and the Federal Reserve Portfolio Tracker. Primary dealers buy and sell government securities from the Federal Reserve. Each investor gets a $10,000 Government Security and an Investor Balance Sheet. Each bank gets two deposit slips. Treasurer (one student) Open Market Operations Simulation
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-5 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Investor Balance Sheet Assets (securities)Assets (deposits)Total Assets (securities + deposits) Initial End of Round 1 End of Round 2 Bank Balance Sheet Assets (money/reserves) Liabilities (deposits) Net Assets (assets - liabilities) Initial End of Round 1 End of Round 2 Federal Reserve Portfolio TrackerGovernment Securities Initial $0 End of Round 1 End of Round 2
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-6 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Expansionary monetary policy: Actions taken by the Federal Reserve to increase the growth of the money supply and the amount of credit available. Bank reserves increase Interest rates decrease Borrowing increases Federal Reserve Primary Dealers Fed buys bonds Money Bonds Banks
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-7 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Contractionary monetary policy: Actions taken by the Federal Reserve to decrease the growth of the money supply and the amount of credit available. Bank reserves increase Interest rates decrease Borrowing increases Federal Reserve Primary Dealers Banks Fed sells bonds Money Bonds
LESSON 24 THE FED’S TOOLBOX 24-8 HIGH SCHOOL ECONOMICS 3 RD EDITION © COUNCIL FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION, NEW YORK, NY Central bank: An institution that oversees and regulates the banking system and quantity of money in the economy. Dual mandate: The Federal Reserve's responsibility to use monetary policy to promote maximum employment and price stability. Price stability—A low and stable rate of inflation maintained over an extended period of time. The Fed has a longer-run goal of 2 percent inflation. Maximum employment—The Fed does not have a specific unemployment target but regularly publishes a forecast for the longer-run unemployment rate. Terms to Know
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