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A short overview of p2p technologies Marcelo Dias de Amorim Laboratoire LIP6 Université Pierre et Marie Curie Caen – Le 11 Juin 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "A short overview of p2p technologies Marcelo Dias de Amorim Laboratoire LIP6 Université Pierre et Marie Curie Caen – Le 11 Juin 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 A short overview of p2p technologies Marcelo Dias de Amorim Laboratoire LIP6 Université Pierre et Marie Curie Caen – Le 11 Juin 2003

2 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Plan  Introduction  Models  Example of applications  Some systems  References

3 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Definitions P2P is a class of applications that take advantage of resources – storage, cycles, content, human presence – available at the edges of the Internet. Clay Shirky ( ) P2P refers to a class of systems and applications that employ distributed resources to perform a critical function in a decentralized manner. Milojicic et al. ( HP )

4 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Some controversy  Is p2p a new approach? Problems is peer-to-peer systems are neither new nor unique; they make us look for solutions to old problems that we all worked around or tried to ignore before. Andy Oram (O'Reilly & associates) speech at Free and Open Source Software Developers's Meeting Brussels, BE, Feb. 2002

5 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Curiosity (traffic) Others Unidentified P2P 18% 51% 31% One year ago… 48% 41% 11% … and today! source netflow.internet2.edu

6 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Properties  No central control, no central database  No hierarchy Every node is both a client and a server The communication between peers is symmetric  No global view of the system Scalablity  Availability for any peer  Peers are autonomous  System globally unreliable Robustness and security issues

7 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Examples of p2p usage  File-sharing applications  Distributed databases  Distributed computing (grid?)  Collaboration  Distributed games  Instant messaging  Ad hoc networks  Application-level multicast  Etc.

8 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin IP Overlay networks Overlay

9 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Overlay networks IP Overlay

10 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Centralized model (Napster)  File-sharing system  Almost distributed system The location of a document is centralized The "transfer" is peer-to-peer  Problems Robustness Scalability (?)

11 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Centralized model (Napster) INTERNET location server register Document x? OK: Peer Z IP = a.b.c.d  Document x! x 

12 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Non-structured system (Gnutella-like)  Two phases (like Napster) Localization + exchange  No server  Open source gnutella.wego.com  Distributed search The query is flooded Loop avoidance Limited TTL (not all nodes are visited)

13 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Gnutella

14 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Structured systems (DHTs)  Based on distributed hash tables (DHTs)  No flooding Exact matches  Overhead Gnutella-like  O(n) DHT  O(log n)  Examples CAN, Pastry, Chord, Kademlia, Tapestry, etc.

15 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Content-Addressable Networks (CAN)  Provides a large scale distributed hash table Keys are mapped into values  CAN defines a d-dimensional virtual space No relationship with the physical space Query  O(n 1/d ) Neighbors  O(d)  The virtual space is completely distributed among the peers Each peer is responsible for one share of the space The peer that is responsible for region R is also responsible for the values inside R  Documents must be uniquely identified

16 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example

17 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example 1

18 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example 12

19 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example

20 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example

21 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example

22 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example

23 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Example

24 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Association ID  node Ex: Node 3 holds this document

25 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Association ID  node

26 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Application-layer multicast  Native multicast  not yet completely deployed  ALM  easier/faster to implement Scalability  states at end-systems High-level support

27 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Application-layer multicast source

28 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Taxonomy P2P Applications Compute Intensive Compo- nentized Content exchange File system Filtering, mining Instant message Shared apps Games Parallel Content and file mngt Collaboration

29 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Many works and projects  Gnutella and

30 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin JXTA (Sun)  Open platform for p2p cooperation  Interoperability Any system/peer/application  Platform independency Languages (C, Java, etc) Systems platforms (Unix, Windows, etc) Networking platforms (802.11, Bluetooth, TCP/IP, etc)  Ubiquity Sensors, PDAs, routers, desktops, laptops, storage systems

31 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin JXTA (Sun)  Objectives Find peers and resources Share files with anyone across the network Create a particular group of peers across different networks Communicate securely with peers across public networks  Projects Applications (24 projects) Core (13 projects) Demos (3 projects) Forge (15 projects) Other (12 projects) Services (24 projects)

32 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin JXTA (Sun)  Protocols  Peer discovery protocol  Peer resolver protocol  Peer information protocol  Rendezvous protocol  Pipe binding protocol  Endpoint routing protocol

33 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin JXTA (Sun) Peer (Desktop, cell phone, PDA, etc.) Security Peer GroupsPeer PipesPeer Monitoring JXTA Community Services Sun JXTA Services JXTA Shell Peer Commands JXTA Community Applications CORECORE JXTAJXTA

34 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin JXTA applications

35 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Final remarks  P2P implies a very large spectrum of areas  High interest in both academicals/industrials  Much has already been done, but no conclusions are definitive  IPv6 and P2P NAT, firewalls, IPv6 as an overlay  Many open issues Trust, security, scalability, QoS, etc.

36 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin Working groups et al.  A generic site on p2p from O'Reilly  P2P working group  Internet2 p2p working group p2p.internet2.edu  Peer-to-peer development (p2p-hackers) zgp.org/mailman/listinfo/p2p-hackers  Interesting meeting

37 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin References  Distributed Computing Distributed (www.distributed.net)www.distributed.net (www.seti.org)www.seti.org (gah.stanford.edu) (www.stanford.edu/group/pandegroup/folding) Global Grid Forum (www.globalgridforum.org)www.globalgridforum.org Globus Project (www.globus.org)www.globus.org  File sharing Napster (www.napster.com)www.napster.com Gnutella (gnutella.wego.com) Kazaa (www.kazaa.com)www.kazaa.com

38 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin References  Distributed hash tables CAN (www.acm.org/sigs/sigcomm/sigcomm2001/p13- ratnasamy.pdf) Pastry (research.microsoft.com/~antr/Pastry) Chord (www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord)www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord Tapestry (www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ravenben/tapestry)www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ravenben/tapestry Freenet (freenet.sourceforge.net) Kademlia (kademlia.scs.cs.nyu.edu)  Ad hoc networking AODV (www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet- aodv-13.txt) OLSR (www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-olsr- 10.txt) Tribe (rp.lip6.fr/site_rp/_publications/350-79Viana.ps.gz)

39 IPv6 – Caen, 11 juin References  Platforms JXTA (www.jxta.org)www.jxta.org.NET (www.microsoft.com/net)www.microsoft.com/net  Collaboration Groove (www.groove.net)www.groove.net Endeavors (www.endeavors.com)www.endeavors.com  IPv6 as a p2p overlay  Working Groups p2p.internet2.edu


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