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The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on our Immune system Group A10 Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on our Immune system Group A10 Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effect of Mating with Neanderthals and Denisovans on our Immune system Group A10 Gerald Duncan, Olivia Lahay, Madeline Lionberger, Kyle Sledge, Heather Yutko

2 Introduction HLA (human leukocyte antigen): Genes important in immune system response Haplotype: Combination of alleles transmitted together Ligand: binds to receptors Natural Killer Cells: Integral part of immune system Denisovans: group similar to Neanderthals Balancing selection: Multiple alleles maintained in population Introgression: Gene flow between hybrids and parental populations Admixture: Mixing formerly unexposed populations

3 Data/Results Study led by Stanford University Human migration from Africa occurred 67,500 years ago Maximum of 4% of modern Eurasian genomes can be traced back to Neanderthals Maximum of 4-6% of modern Melanesian genomes can be traced back to Denisovans Thousands of alleles per HLA Denisovans would have to evolved certain immunities (Malaria)

4 Model of a HLA-B Protein

5 Data/Results (Cont’d) Percentage of HLA-A deviations believed (Abi-Rached) to be from sexual activity with extinct races: I.European: 50% II.Chinese: 70% III.Papua New Guinean: 95% % of Chinese inhabitants possess A*11 Very rare in African regions

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8 Discussion The findings suggest: I.Interbreeding between archaic humans and Homo sapiens. II.Adaptive introgression of HLA genes. HLA: I.Control NK cells II.T cell immunity III.Highly polymorphic---different alleles IV.Vital immune system component

9 Conclusion Some HLA alleles in modern humans may have originated from extinct human species. These alleles may contribute to defending against locally prevalent diseases.

10 Literature Cited Abi-Rached, Jobin, Kulkami, McWhinnie, Dalva, Gragert, Babrzadeh, Gharizadeh, Luo, Plummer, Kimani, Carrington, Middleton, Rajalingam, Beksac, Marsh, Maiers, Guethlein, Tavoularis, Little, Green, Norman & Parham “The Shaping of Modern Human Immune Systems by Multiregional Admixture with Archaic Humans.” Science Mag, online. Freeman, Scott. Biological Science. 4 th ed. San Francisco: Person Education, Inc, Print. Handbook of Statistical Genetics. 3 rd ed. Eds. D.J. Balding, M. Bishop., C. Cannings. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Print. “Haplotype.” genome.gov. National Human Genome Research Institute. Web. 17 November McGrath, Matt. “Neanderthal sex boosted immunity in modern humans.” BBC News, online. Mick, Jason. “Neanderthal Sex Gave Europeans and Asians Stronger Immune Systems.” Daily Tech, online htm 555.htm Rhymer, Judith M and Daniel Simberloff. “Extinction by Hybridization and Introgression.” Annual Reviews Inc., Web. 17 November Sample, Ian. “The Downside of Sex with Neanderthals.” The Guardian, online. Vivier E, Tomasello E, Baratin M, Walzer T, Ugolini S. “Functions of natural killer cells.” Nat Immunol, May Web. 17 November Young, Ed. “Did sex with Neanderthals and Denisovans shape our immune system? The jury’s still out.” Discover Magazine, online. denisovans-shape-our-immune-systems-the-jury%E2%80%99s-still-out/ denisovans-shape-our-immune-systems-the-jury%E2%80%99s-still-out/


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