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From Africa to Aotearoa The story of human migrations.

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Presentation on theme: "From Africa to Aotearoa The story of human migrations."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Africa to Aotearoa The story of human migrations

2 Part 1: Out of Africa The spread of modern humans from Africa through Europe and Asia Part 2: To Aotearoa Human migrations across the Pacific to New Zealand

3 The modern human lineage originated in Africa less than 200,000 years ago

4 The earliest modern human fossils are from Ethiopia Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: White et al. (2003) Nature 423, © 2003 Human skull from Herto, Ethiopia, dated to 160,000 years ago

5 Africa EuropeAsia Homo erectus Modern humans: Out of Africa Mitochondrial Eve

6 Early human fossil from Israel, dated to 90, ,000 years ago

7 DNA and fossils can give different types of information

8 Population 1: A T G T A A C G T T A T A Population 2: A C G T A A C G T T A T A Population 3: A C G A A A C G T T A T A Population 4: A C G A A A C C T T A T A By comparing DNA changes among populations we can trace their history

9 Mitochondria: DNA comes from mother Offspring cell Nucleus: DNA comes from both parents Mitochondrial DNA traces the female line

10 150,000 65,000 40,000 50,000 Mitochondrial DNA suggests migrations out of Africa began around 65,000 years ago

11 The Y chromosome traces the male line Y chromosome lineages began to diverge about 60,000 years ago

12 Migration patterns of early humans https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/ Y chromosome Mitochondrial DNA

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14 By sequencing whole genomes we can see the genetic signatures of our ancestors

15 Genome sequences suggest two migrations into Asia An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia Morten Rasmussen, Eske Willerslev and colleagues, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Science 2011; Vol. 334 pages 94-98

16 150, ,000 40,000

17 Genome sequences suggest two migrations into Asia African European Chinese Melanesian & Aboriginal 60,000-75,000 yrs ago 1 25,000-40,000 yrs ago 2

18 Whom did Homo sapiens meet as they spread through Europe and Asia?

19 Neanderthals lived in Europe 150,000 to 30,000 years ago

20 Did Neanderthals and Homo sapiens interbreed? Comparison of Neanderthal (left) and modern human skulls

21 Fossilised bones provide a source of Neanderthal DNA Neanderthal sampling sites A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome Svante Pääbo, Richard Green and colleagues, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany Science 2010; Vol. 328 pages

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23 Neanderthal Interbreeding (2%) African European Chinese Melanesian

24 Denisova Cave, Siberia

25 © Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia David Reich, Svante Pääbo and colleagues, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and Harvard University, USA Nature Vol 468, 23/30 December 2010

26 Neanderthal African (San) Chinese Denisovan Interbreeding European Melanesian

27 150,000 Neanderthal Denisovan

28 Out of Africa, with some hybridisation Modern humans are mostly of recent African origin The contribution from Neanderthal and Denisovan hybridization is small Over 10,000 years, one mating event every years.

29 What does “race” mean?

30 60-75,000 Our recent African origin means our “racial” characteristics evolved only recently

31 19 th century: Human races different species?

32 Racial features are the result of superficial genetic changes “We are all Africans under the skin”

33 Blue eyes result from a single genetic change less than 10,000 years ago Percentage of Europeans with light-coloured eyes

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35 When you look at the underlying genetic variation, we are much more similar than we appear on the surface 0.1% variation

36 Most human genetic variation occurs within populations AfricaAsiaEurope

37 Most human genetic variation occurs within populations 85-90% variation within populations 10-15% variation between populations Differences between ethnic groups are minor compared to differences among people overall

38 Y chromosome Mitochondrial DNA Ancestry, not race

39 © Produced by Hilary Miller in association with the Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution Thanks to Azra Moeed, Terry Burrell, Barbara Mavor, and Glenda Lewis for assistance with preparing this presentation

40 Photo credits Slide 3: Science Photo Library Slide 4: MacMillan Publishers Slides 6, 7: Science Photo Library Slide 9: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu) Slide 10: Blank map from Wikimedia Commons (Author Crates) Slide 11: Wikimedia Commons (Courtesy: National Human Genome Research Institute) Slide 12: Constructed with information from National Genographic maps and the Genographic project Slide 14: Science Photo Library Slide 15: iStockphoto Slides 18-20: Science Photo Library Slide 21: Science Magazine, American Association for the Advancement of Science Slides 22, 24: Science Photo library Slide 25: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Slide 28: Science Photo Library Slide 29: TRANZ International Image Library Ltd Slide 31: Science Photo Library Slide 32, 33, 35: TRANZ International Image Library Ltd Slide 33: Wikimedia Commons (Author: NordNordWest) Slide 34: Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal Slide 38: Constructed with information from National Genographic maps and the Genographic project


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