Presentation on theme: "PROGRESS IN PRODUCTION OF SUPER YIELDING HYBRID BASMATI RICE IN KENYA"— Presentation transcript:
1 PROGRESS IN PRODUCTION OF SUPER YIELDING HYBRID BASMATI RICE IN KENYA DR. Paul Njiruh Nthakanio………TUKDr. James I. Kanya …………………UoNDr. John M. Kimani ………………...KARI MweaDr. Raphael Wanjogu ………………MIADFUNDED / COLLABORATORSNATIONAL IRRIGATION BOARB , TUK, UoN, KARI
2 HYBRID RICE PROJECT Work started in 2011 under NCST funding. In 2012, we approached NIB which agreed to support the project financially.Project is being conducted in four phasesPhase one: Adaptability of breeding rice lines in Kenya at KARI Mwea (In green house and natural conditions):-DonePhase Two: Breeding. Hybridization between Basmatis (370 and ) as paternal parents and PGMS and TGMS rice lines (Obtained from IRRI):- On going.Phase Three: Natural sterility induction in Mombasa; On going.
3 Phase 4: Production of hybrid rice in Bunyala and Mwea. PublicationKanya J.I., Njiru P.N., Kimani J.N., Wanjogu R.K. (2013): Evaluation of Photoperiod and Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Lines For Hybrid Rice Seeds Production in Kenya. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research ( (Print) (Online) Vol. 3, No. 2, p , 2013).
4 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background : Rice production in Kenya Over 300 tonnes of rice is consumed in Kenya.About 100 tones is locally produced.In Kenya rice is mainly grown in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano, Yala Swamp (MoA, 2011).About 98% of Mwea rice is Basmati.By year 2030 Kenya population is expected to be 60.0million.Rice yield is expected to increase 600% to feed the population.
5 1.2 Rice Situation in Kenya Table1. Source: NCPB and Department of Land, Crops Development and Management, USDAYear2006201320302050Kenya Population38m40m60m??Production (Tones)64,840100,00Area (ha)23,106
6 1.3 Food security ProblemGlobal ConcernsHigh yielding varieties (HYV) dwarf rice varieties have reached breeding plateau hence global yield.Green revolution technology now need re- innovation.
7 Kenya concernsLow yield per hectare of Basmati rice (4.1ha) (Ministry of Agriculture, 2010).Rice consumption is far above production.Rice diseases like blast continue to reduce yields (Wanjogu and Mugambi, 2001).
8 1.4 Hybrid Vigour and higher yields Hybridization has been used to increase rice yield per hectare (Zhang, 2010).High yield is due to heterosis or hybrid vigour.
9 1.5 Measuring heterosis? Mid-Parent (MP) heterosis F1-MP (F1 performs better than mean of two parents):F1-MPMPX100Better Parent (BP) heterosis(F1 performs better than better parent):F1-BPBPX100Standard heterosis(F1 performs better than the check variety):F1-CKCKX100
10 Production of HybridTo make a cross Male and female parents are needed.a) Female need to have non-viable male gametes so that they can be crossed with another variety.b) Male parent: need to have viable pollen.
12 Hybridization x Male parent with fertile pollen Female with sterile pollen but fertile ovule.Male parent with fertile pollenHybrid plant
13 1.7 Male emasculation Methods of male emasculation Male emasculation is done to induce male sterility, a condition in which the pollen grains are not viable to fertilize normally to set seeds.Methods of male emasculationa) Environmental Genic Male sterility method (EGMS)PGMS – photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile lines. Uses long daylight length to induce sterilityTGMS - thermosentive genic male sterile lines Uses high temperature to induce sterility
14 Methods of emasculation continued b) Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility (CMS) Male sterility is controlled by the interaction of a genetic factor (S) present in the cytoplasm and nuclear gene (s). c) Chemically induced male sterility Male sterility is induced by some chemicals (gametocides).
15 CMS Vs PGMS . Based on the discovery of P(T)GMS mutant FertileS-lineMultiplicationCritical Fertility PointCritical Sterility PointReproductive Upper LimitReproductive Lower LimitSterileF1 SeedProductionPartial SterilityModel of Sterility / Fertility Expression for TGMS RiceTemperaturelowhighBased on the discovery of P(T)GMS mutantMale sterility controlled by 1 or 2 pairs of recessive gene(s)
16 1.8 ObjectiveUse hybrid rice technology to raise yield i) Introduce EGMS in Kenya and test for their adaptability. ii) Develop Basmati with EGMS gene. iii) Produce hybrids by crossing EGMS-Basmati with conventional Basmati.
17 2. MATERIALS EGMS included; PGMS and TGMS LINES FROM IRRI. These are:- PGMS LinesV1 - IR SV3 - IR STGMS RiceV2 - IR S.Basmati370
18 3. METHODS Test for EGMS adaptability Sowing of EGMS in KARI Mwea. Growth at sterility conditions and spikelet fertility assessed.Growth under fertility inducing conditions and spikelet fertility assessed.
19 Sowing of EGMS in greenhouse a bFig. a and b show EGMS and the greenhouse respectively
20 3.1.2 Complete male sterile EGMS a b ca). EGMS under sterility inducing conditions, b). sterile panicle and c). Pollen from sterile panicle.
21 Reversion of EGMS to fertility (fertility inducing conditions ) a b Ca). EGMS rice plant, b). Panicles and c). Pollen from plants grown under fertility inducing conditions respectively with grains.