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DR. Paul Njiruh Nthakanio………TUK Dr. James I. Kanya …………………UoN Dr. John M. Kimani ………………...KARI Mwea Dr. Raphael Wanjogu ………………MIAD  FUNDED / COLLABORATORS.

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Presentation on theme: "DR. Paul Njiruh Nthakanio………TUK Dr. James I. Kanya …………………UoN Dr. John M. Kimani ………………...KARI Mwea Dr. Raphael Wanjogu ………………MIAD  FUNDED / COLLABORATORS."— Presentation transcript:

1 DR. Paul Njiruh Nthakanio………TUK Dr. James I. Kanya …………………UoN Dr. John M. Kimani ………………...KARI Mwea Dr. Raphael Wanjogu ………………MIAD  FUNDED / COLLABORATORS  NATIONAL IRRIGATION BOARB, TUK, UoN, KARI

2  Work started in 2011 under NCST funding.  In 2012, we approached NIB which agreed to support the project financially.  Project is being conducted in four phases Phase one: Adaptability of breeding rice lines in Kenya at KARI Mwea (In green house and natural conditions):-Done Phase Two: Breeding. Hybridization between Basmatis (370 and 217 ) as paternal parents and PGMS and TGMS rice lines (Obtained from IRRI):- On going. Phase Three: Natural sterility induction in Mombasa; On going. HYBRID RICE PROJECT

3 Phase 4: Production of hybrid rice in Bunyala and Mwea. Publication Kanya J.I., Njiru P.N., Kimani J.N., Wanjogu R.K. (2013): Evaluation of Photoperiod and Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Lines For Hybrid Rice Seeds Production in Kenya. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research ( (Print) (Online) Vol. 3, No. 2, p , 2013).

4 1.1 Background : Rice production in Kenya  Over 300 tonnes of rice is consumed in Kenya.  About 100 tones is locally produced.  In Kenya rice is mainly grown in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano, Yala Swamp (MoA, 2011).  About 98% of Mwea rice is Basmati.  By year 2030 Kenya population is expected to be 60.0million.  Rice yield is expected to increase 600% to feed the population.

5 Year Kenya Population 38m40m60m?? Production (Tones) 64,840100,00?? Area (ha)23,106?? Table1. Source: NCPB and Department of Land, Crops Development and Management, USDA

6 Global Concerns  High yielding varieties (HYV) dwarf rice varieties have reached breeding plateau hence global yield.  Green revolution technology now need re- innovation.

7  Low yield per hectare of Basmati rice (4.1ha) (Ministry of Agriculture, 2010).  Rice consumption is far above production.  Rice diseases like blast continue to reduce yields (Wanjogu and Mugambi, 2001).

8  Hybridization has been used to increase rice yield per hectare (Zhang, 2010).  High yield is due to heterosis or hybrid vigour.

9 1.5 Measuring heterosis? Mid-Parent (MP) heterosis (F1 performs better than mean of two parents): F1-MP MP X100 Better Parent (BP) heterosis (F1 performs better than better parent): Standard heterosis (F1 performs better than the check variety): F1-BP BP X100 F1-CK CK

10  To make a cross Male and female parents are needed.  a) Female need to have non-viable male gametes so that they can be crossed with another variety.  b) Male parent: need to have viable pollen.


12 x Female with sterile pollen but fertile ovule. Male parent with fertile pollen Hybrid plant

13  Male emasculation is done to induce m ale sterility, a condition in which the pollen grains are not viable to fertilize normally to set seeds. Methods of male emasculation a) Environmental Genic Male sterility method (EGMS) ‣ PGMS – photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile lines. Uses long daylight length to induce sterility ‣ TGMS - thermosentive genic male sterile lines Uses high temperature to induce sterility

14 b) Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility (CMS) Male sterility is controlled by the interaction of a genetic factor (S) present in the cytoplasm and nuclear gene (s). c) Chemically induced male sterility Male sterility is induced by some chemicals (gametocides).

15 .  Based on the discovery of P(T)GMS mutant  Male sterility controlled by 1 or 2 pairs of recessive gene(s) Fertile S-line Multiplication Critical Fertility Point Critical Sterility Point Reproductive Upper Limit Reproductive Lower Limit Sterile F1 Seed Production Partial Sterility Model of Sterility / Fertility Expression for TGMS Rice Temperature low high

16 Use hybrid rice technology to raise yield i ) Introduce EGMS in Kenya and test for their adaptability. ii) Develop Basmati with EGMS gene. iii) Produce hybrids by crossing EGMS-Basmati with conventional Basmati.

17  EGMS included; PGMS and TGMS LINES FROM IRRI. These are:- PGMS Lines V1 - IR S V3 - IR S TGMS Rice V2 - IR S.  Basmati370

18 Test for EGMS adaptability  Sowing of EGMS in KARI Mwea.  Growth at sterility conditions and spikelet fertility assessed.  Growth under fertility inducing conditions and spikelet fertility assessed.

19 a b Fig. a and b show EGMS and the greenhouse respectively

20 a b c a). EGMS under sterility inducing conditions, b). sterile panicle and c). Pollen from sterile panicle.

21 a b C a). EGMS rice plant, b). Panicles and c). Pollen from plants grown under fertility inducing conditions respectively with grains.



24 V1 xb370 cross

25 Lane 1: Rader, V1xB217, V1 xB370, V2xB217, V2xB370, V3xB217, VxB370)

26 Ladder V1,V1xB217, B217




30 Sabaki river

31 S/No New line being testedRemarks 1 V1B217P001 Long awns 2 V13B217P002 Long awns 3 V1B217P003 awnless 4 V1B217P004 Short awns 5 V1B217P005 Long awns 5 V1B217P006 Short awns 6 V1B217P007 Short awns

32 Line IdentityNumber of lines under trial V1XB V2X21723 V3X21735 V1X37038 V2X V3X 37055





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