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1 Review What did Mendel conclude determines inheritance Explain What are dominant and recessive alleles Apply Concepts Why were true breeding pea plants.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Review What did Mendel conclude determines inheritance Explain What are dominant and recessive alleles Apply Concepts Why were true breeding pea plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Review What did Mendel conclude determines inheritance Explain What are dominant and recessive alleles Apply Concepts Why were true breeding pea plants important for Mendel’s experiments 2 Review What is segregation Explain What happens to alleles between the P generation and the F 2 generation

2 CH 11 INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

3  Heredity  Delivery of characteristics from parent to offspring  Genetics  Scientific study of heredity.

4 The Experiments of Gregor Mendel  Founded modern science of genetics  Austrian monk  Charge of the monastery garden.

5 The Experiments of Gregor Mendel  Worked with pea plants  Multiple generations each growing season  Many traits  Traits in one of two forms  Easy to grow  Lots of offspring.

6 The Role of Fertilization  Stamen  Male part of each flower makes pollen (contains sperm)  Carpel  Female portion of each flower produces reproductive cells called eggs.

7 Fertilization  Male and female reproductive cells join  For peas tiny embryo encased within a seed  Peas normally are self pollinating  Sperm and egg are from same parent.

8  Trait  Specific characteristic of an individual, such as seed color or plant height  May vary from one individual to another  True-breeding or Pure Breeding  Produce offspring with identical traits to themselves.

9  He cut away the pollen-bearing male parts and then dusted on the pollen from a different flower.

10  Hybrid  Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits.

11  Generations  P1- original parents  F1- first offspring, F is for filial  F2- second generation of offspring; F1’s kids.

12

13 Mendel’s Two Conclusions 1. Individual’s characteristics are determined by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next These factors come in two varieties 2. Principle of dominance Some alleles are dominant and will cover up the recessive version of the allele.

14  Genes  Factors that are passed from parent to offspring  Alleles  Different forms of the gene.

15  Dominant  Version of trait that shows up in each generation of Mendel’s experiments  Can hide the other form of that trait  Capital letter  Recessive  Version that was covered up in the F1 generation  Lower case letter.

16  Tall plant is dominant over short.

17 Where Did the Recessive Gene Go  Mendel allowed all seven kinds of F 1 hybrids to self-pollinate  He found recessive trait in about ¼ of the F 2 generation.

18  Segregation  Alleles split and each gamete only carries one  Gamete  Sex cells (egg or sperm).

19  Dominant allele had masked the corresponding recessive allele in the F 1 generation.

20  F 1 plants were tall with a tall allele from one parent and a short allele from the other parent.

21  F 1 adults produces gametes, the alleles for each gene segregate from one another.

22  Whenever two t’s combine, a short plant results  Whenever there is even one T, a tall plant results.


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