2STRUCTURE OF THE CHAPTER Tabulating dataSeven ways of organizing and presenting data analysisNarrative and biographical approaches to data analysisSystematic approaches to data analysisMethodological tools for analyzing qualitative data
3TABULATING DATA (Accompanying table) Key: P1 = Primary 1, P 6 = Primary 6, F3 = Secondary Form 3, F5 = Secondary Form 5.The left hand column indicates the number of the respondent (1-12) and the level which the respondent taught (e.g. P1, F3 etc.).Where data for respondents in each age phase are similar they are grouped into a single set of responses by row; where there are dissimilar responses they are kept separate.The right hand column indicates the responses. In many cases respondents all gave similar responses in terms to the topic (strengths and weaknesses of English language teaching); these are grouped together.
4Q7: Strengths and weaknesses of English language teaching 1. P1Students started learning English at a very young age and they should be good at it. However, this could also be a disadvantage as students were too young to learn English and to understand what they were taught2-6: P6These respondents all commented that individual schools had great autonomy over syllabus design. Consequently, some syllabus contents were too rich to be covered within the limited time span. Therefore, it was hard to make adjustments, though students could not cope with the learning requirements. This put pressure on both teachers and students. Worse still, some schools made students learn other foreign languages apart from English, and that made the learning of English more difficult.7-9: F310-12: F5
5SEVEN WAYS OF ORGANIZING AND PRESENTING DATA ANALYSIS By groups of peopleBy individualsBy issue or themeBy research questionBy instrumentBy case studiesBy narrative account
6NARRATIVE APPROACHES TO DATA ANALYSIS Humans make meaning and think in terms of ‘storied text’, which guides their actions.Narrative analysis, together with biographical data, can give the added dimension of realism, authenticity, humanity, personality, emotions, views and values in a situation.
7NARRATIVE APPROACHES TO DATA ANALYSIS Narrativespass on informationbring information to lifemeet people’s psychological needs in coping with lifehelp a group to crystallize or define an issue, view, value or perspective,can persuade or create a positive image,help researchers and readers to understand the experiences of participants and culturescontribute to the structuring of identity
8BIOGRAPHICAL APPROACHES TO DATA ANALYSIS Biographiestend to follow a chronologyreport critical or key events and momentsreport key decisions and peoplecan establish causalityMay restore broken identities or shattered futures
9NARRATIVE AND BIOGRAPHICAL APPROACHES TO DATA ANALYSIS Narratives and biographies are selective , based on:Key decision points in the story or narrativeKey, critical (or meaningful to the participants) eventsThemesBehavioursActionsPeopleKey experiencesKey places
10SYSTEMATIC APPROACHES TO DATA ANALYSIS Comparing different groups simultaneously and over timeMatching the responses given in interviews to observed behaviourAnalyzing deviant and negative casesCalculating frequencies of occurrences and responsesAssembling and providing sufficient data that keeps separate raw data from analysis
11SELECTIVITY IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OCCURS BECAUSE OF . . . Data overloadFirst impressionsAvailability of peopleInformation availabilityPositive instancesInternal consistencyUneven reliabilityMissing dataRevision of hypothesesConfidence in judgementCo-occurrence (may be mistaken for association)Inconsistency
12STAGES IN ANALYSIS Generating natural units of meaning Classifying, categorizing and ordering these units of meaningStructuring narratives to describe the contentsInterpreting the data
13TWELVE TACTICS IN ANALYSIS Counting frequencies of occurrenceNoting patterns and themesSeeing plausibilityClusteringMaking metaphorsSplitting variables
14TWELVE TACTICS IN ANALYSIS Subsuming particulars into the generalFactoringIdentifying and noting relations between variablesFinding intervening variablesBuilding a logical chain of evidenceMaking conceptual/theoretical coherence
15CONTENT ANALYSIS Briefing Sampling Associating Hypothesis development Hypothesis testingImmersion in the dataCategorizingIncubationSynthesisCullingInterpretationWritingRethinking
16METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA Analytic inductionConstant comparisonTypological analysisEnumeration