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Petri Nets Section 2 Roohollah Abdipur

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**Properties Reachability Boundedness Safeness**

“Can we reach one particular state from another?” Boundedness “Will a storage place overflow?” the number of tokens in a place is bounded Safeness - the number of tokens in a place never exceeds one Deadlock-free - none of markings in R(PN, M0) is a deadlock Liveness “Will the system die in a particular state?”

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**Properties Reachability**

Question: “Can we reach one particular state from another?” To answer: find R(PN, M0)

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**Properties Reachability : Vending machine example p1 t8 t1 t2 p2 t3 p3**

Initial marking:M0 M0 = (1,0,0,0,0) M1 = (0,1,0,0,0) M2 = (0,0,1,0,0) M3 = (0,0,0,1,0) M4 = (0,0,0,0,1) M0 M1 M2 M3 M4 t3 t1 t5 t8 t2 t6 “M2 is reachable from M1 and M4 is reachable from M0.” In fact, all markings are reachable from every marking.

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**Properties Boundedness The PN for vending machine is 1-bounded.**

“Will a storage place overflow?” A Petri net is said to be k-bounded or simply bounded if the number of tokens in each place does not exceed a finite number k for any marking reachable from M0. The PN for vending machine is 1-bounded. A 1-bounded Petri net is also safe.

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**Properties Safeness The number of tokens in a place never exceeds one**

i.e., a 1-bounded PN is a safe PN e.g., the PN for vending machine is safe

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Properties Liveness: A Petri net with initial marking M0 is live if, no matter what marking has been reached from M0, it is possible to ultimately fire any transition by progressing through some further firing sequence. A live Petri net guarantees deadlock-free operation, no matter what firing sequence is chosen. E.g., the vending machine is live and the producer-consumer system is also live. A transition is dead if it can never be fired in any firing sequence

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**Properties Liveness: An Example A bounded but non-live Petri net t1 p3**

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**Properties Liveness: Another Example An unbounded but live Petri net**

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Properties Liveness: a PN is live if, no matter what marking has been reached, it is possible to fire any transition with an appropriate firing sequence equivalent to deadlock-free

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**Properties Other properties: Reversibility Coverability Persistency**

Synchronic distance Fairness ….

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**Analysis Methods Enumeration Linear Algebraic Technique Simulation**

Reachability Tree Coverability Tree Linear Algebraic Technique State Matrix Equation Invariant Analysis: P-Invariant and T-invariant Simulation

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Analysis Methods Reachability Tree: An exmple

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Analysis Methods Reachability Tree: Another exmple

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Analysis Methods Linear Algebraic Technique

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Analysis Methods Linear Algebraic Technique

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**Other Types of Petri Nets**

Coloured Petri nets Timed Petri nets Object-Oriented Petri nets

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THE END

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