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From Monotonic Transition Systems to Monotonic Games Parosh Aziz Abdulla Uppsala University

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Outline Model Checking Infinite-State Systems Methodology: Monotonicity Well Quasi-Orderings Models Petri Nets Lossy Channel Systems Timed Petri Nets Extension to Games

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Model Checking T sat ? transition system specification

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Model Checking T sat ? transition system specification Transition System

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Reachability Init Fin Init reaches Fin?

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Transition Systems Reachability Init Fin Init reaches Fin? Saftey Properties = Reachability

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Forward Reachability Analysis

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Post

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Fin Forward Reachability Analysis = computing Post Init Forward Reachability Analysis Post

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Backward Reachability Analysis

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Pre

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Init Fin Backward Reachability Analysis = computing Pre Backward Reachability Analysis Pre

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Init Fin Backward Reachability Analysis Fin Forward Reachability Analysis Init

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Infinite-State Systems 1. Unbounded Data Structures stacks queues clocks counters, etc. 2. Unbounded Control Structures Parameterized Systems Dynamic Systems

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Init Fin Backward Reachability Analysis infinite

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Init Fin Backward Reachability Analysis infinite effective symbolic representation

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Petri Nets

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States = Markings

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Transitions

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Firing t Transitions t

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t is disabled Transitions t

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Monotonicity

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Petri Nets: infinite state

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W C R=1? R:=0 R:=1 Mutual Exclusion

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W C R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 Mutual Exclusion

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R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 Mutual Exclusion

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R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 Mutual Exclusion Initial states: R=1 All processes in Infinitely many

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R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 Mutual Exclusion Initial states: R=1 All processes in Infinitely many Bad states: Two or more processes in

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R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 R=1? R:=0 R:=1 Mutual Exclusion WC R=1

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Mutual Exclusion WC R=1 Set of initial states : infinite

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Mutual Exclusion WC R=1

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Mutual Exclusion WC R=1 WC

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Mutual Exclusion WC R=1

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Mutual Exclusion WC R=1 WC

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mutual exclusion: #tokens in critical section > 1 critical section Safety Properties

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mutual exclusion: #tokens in critical section > 1 Ideal = Upward closed set of markings critical section Safety Properties

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mutual exclusion: #tokens in critical section > 1 Ideal = Upward closed set of markings safety = reachability of ideals critical section Safety Properties

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Petri Nets Concurrent systems Infinite-state: symbolic representation Monotonic behaviour Safety properties: reachability of ideals

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Petri Nets Concurrent systems Infinite-state: symbolic representation Monotonic behaviour Safety properties: reachability of ideals

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Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre

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I Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre

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Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre I

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I Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre

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IPre(I) Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre

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Fin Backward Reachability Analysis Ideals

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation i : index (generator) i : generator of ideal i : denotes all markings larger than i

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation index (generator)

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation index (generator)

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation index (generator)

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation index (generator)

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation Index for bad states C

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Ideals: Symbolic Representation Index for bad states C

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Each ideal can be characterized by a finte set of generators

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Index is minimal element of its ideal If i j then j i

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Index for bad states C Indices of Pre Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre

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Index for bad states C Indices of Pre Monotonicity ideals closed under computing Pre i: index Pre(i) computable

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C Step 1 :

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C Step 1 :

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C Step 1 : Step 2 :

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C Step 1 : Step 2 :

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C Step 1 : Step 2 : Step 3 :

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Backward Reachability Analysis Step 0 : C Step 1 : Step 2 : Step 3 :

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What did we need? 1.Computable ordering 2. Monotonicity, Computability of Pre 3. Termination -- Ordering is WQO

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What did we need? 1.Computable ordering 2. Monotonicity, Computability of Pre 3. Termination -- Ordering is WQO ”nice properties”

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Well Quasi-Ordering (WQO) ( A, ) is WQO if a 0 a 1 a 2 a 3....... i,j: i

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Properties of WQO ( A, = ) is WQO if A is finite a 0 a 1 a 2 b a 3 a 4 a 5 b a 6.............. Finite Sets

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Properties of WQO if ( A, ) is WQO w 2 : b 0 b 1 b 2 b 3 b 4 b 5 b 6 Words w 1 : a 0 a 1 a 2 * then ( A, ) is WQO **

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Properties of WQO if ( A, ) is WQO Multisets then ( A M, M ) is WQO M1M1 M2M2 M 1 M M 2

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Methodology Start from a finite domain Build more complicated data structures: words, multisets, lists, sets, etc.

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Examples -- WQO ( A*, ) A : finite alphabet w 1 w 2 : w 1 subword of w 2 e.g. ab xaybz

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Examples -- WQO Words of natural numbers 3 7 1 4 2 8 5 2 7w1w1 w2w2 w1w1 w2w2

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Multisets over a finite alphabet

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Words of multisets over a finite alphabet

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Lossy Channel Systems !m ?n m n n m …… finite state process unbounded lossy channel send and receive operations Infinite state space Perfect channel = Turing machine Motivation: Link protocols

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State !m ?n mpnm npn

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Transitions Send !m m

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Transitions Send !m m Receive ?m m

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Transitions Send !m m Receive ?m m Messages may nondeterministically be lost

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!m ?n Example p n m p n n m p m m p m

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Ordering same colour subword m n p m p n p m n p m p m n p m p n p

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Ordering same colour subword m n p m p n p m n p m p m n p m p n p Computable and WQO

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Monotonicity w1w1 w2w2 w3w3

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w1w1 w2w2 w3w3 Downward closed

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Ideal Index m n p denotes all larger states m n m p m m n m p ………… m n p m n m p m m n m p ………… m n p

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Each ideal can be characterized by a finite set of generators By WQO of

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Computing Pre Pre ( ) contains the following: w

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Computing Pre Pre ( ) contains the following: !m if and w = w’ m then w w’

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Computing Pre Pre ( ) contains the following: !m if and w = w’ m then !m if and last( w) = m then w w’ w

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Computing Pre Pre ( ) contains the following: !m if and w = w’ m then !m if and last( w) = m then ?m if then w w’ w m w

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Example Pre ( ) !b if a d !d if a d b ?d if d a d b a d b

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Methodology (applied to LCS) 1.Computable ordering 2. Monotonicity, Computability of Pre 3. Ordering is WQO

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LCS -- Forward vs Backward Analysis Pre*(w) is regular and computable Post*(w) is regular but not computable

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Timed Petri Nets 2.1 8.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [4, ) [1,2] [3,6]

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2.1 3.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] States = Markings 2.1 3.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 [4, ) [3,6]

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2.1 3.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] Timed Transitions 2.1 3.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 [4, ) [3,6]

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2.1 3.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] 3.4 4.8 1.8 7.5 5.9 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] increase age by 1.3 2.1 3.5 0.5 6.2 4.6 3.4 4.8 1.8 7.5 5.9 [4, ) [3,6] Timed Transitions

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3.1 4.5 1.5 7.2 5.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] t Discrete Transitions 3.1 4.5 1.5 7.2 5.6 [4, ) [3,6]

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3.1 4.5 1.5 7.2 5.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] t 3.1 7.2 5.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] t 0.8 Firing t 3.1 7.2 0.8 5.6 3.1 4.5 1.5 7.2 5.6 [4, ) [3,6] Discrete Transitions

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Timed Petri Nets Concurrent timed systems Infinite-state: symbolic representation Monotonic behaviour Safety properties: reachability of ideals

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Equivalence on Markings 3.1 7.2 5.6 [1,5] [4,7] [0,3] [1,2] t 0.8 [4, ) max = 7 ages > max behave identically [3,6]

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Markings equivalent if they agree on: colours integral parts of clock values ordering on fractional parts 3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 3.2 4.8 1.6 6.4 5.7 Equivalence on Markings

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Markings equivalent if they agree on: colours integral parts of clock values ordering on fractional parts 3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 3.2 4.8 1.6 6.4 5.7 3.1 1.5 4.8 Equivalence on Markings

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Markings equivalent if they agree on: colours integral parts of clock values ordering on fractional parts 3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 3.2 4.8 1.6 6.4 5.7 3.1 1.5 4.8 3.2 1.6 4.7 Equivalence on Markings

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3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 3.2 4.8 1.6 6.4 5.7 3 6 1 5 4 Markings equivalent if they agree on: colours integral parts of clock values ordering on fractional parts Equivalence on Markings

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3.1 4.8 4.8 1.1 5.4 3.2 4.7 4.7 1.2 5.5 5 3131 4444 words over multisets over a finite alphabet Markings equivalent if they agree on: colours integral parts of clock values ordering on fractional parts Equivalence on Markings

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Ordering on Markings M 1 M 2 iff M 3 : M 1 M 3 M 3 M 2 < 3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 4.8 6.4 5.7

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Ordering on Markings M 1 M 2 iff M 3 : M 1 M 3 M 3 M 2 < 3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 4.8 6.4 5.7 4.8 6.2 5.6

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3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 4.8 6.4 5.7 4.8 6.2 5.6

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6 5 4 3 6 1 5 4 subword 3.1 4.8 1.5 6.2 5.6 4.8 6.4 5.7 4.8 6.2 5.6 6 5 4 =

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M 1 M 2 iff M 3 : M 1 M 3 M 3 M 2 3.2 1.2 4.7 < 3.1 4.8 4.8 1.1 5.4 Ordering on Markings

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M 1 M 2 iff M 3 : M 1 M 3 M 3 M 2 3.2 1.2 4.7 < 3.1 4.8 4.8 1.1 5.4 Ordering on Markings 3.1 4.8 1.1

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subword 4 3131 5 3131 4444 4 3131 = 3.2 1.2 4.7 3.1 4.8 4.8 1.1 5.4 3.1 4.8 1.1

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is a well quasi-ordering = subword ordering on multisets over a finite alphabet Properties of

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Properties of -- Monotonicity M1M1 M3M3 M2M2

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M1M1 M3M3 M2M2 M4M4

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M1M1 M3M3 M2M2 M4M4 M5M5

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M1M1 M3M3 M2M2 M4M4 M5M5 M6M6

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M1M1 M3M3 M2M2 M4M4 M5M5 M6M6

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Methodology (applied to TPN) 1.Computable ordering 2. Monotonicity, Computability of Pre 3. Ordering is WQO

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Player A : Can B take game to ? Player B : Infinite-State Games

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Backward Reachability Analysis Characterize losing states for A A-states B-states = Pre( )

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Backward Reachability Analysis Characterize losing states for A B-states A-states = Pre( )

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Backward Reachability Analysis Characterize losing states for A Pre

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Vector Addition Systems with States (VASS) y -- x++ x-- Finite-state automaton operating on variables Variables range over natural numbers Operations: increment or decrement variable

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y-- x++ x-- VASS = Petri nets x y VASS Petri net

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x-- x++ VASS Games Player A : Player B : Can B take game to ?

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x-- x++ 0 0 1 2 3 4

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x-- x++ 0 0 1 2 3 4 A cannot avoid

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x-- x++ 1 1 2 3 4 5 0

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x-- x++ 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 A can avoid

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x-- x++ 2 2 3 4 5 6 1 0 1 2 3

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x-- x++ 2 2 3 4 5 6 1 0 1 2 3 A cannot avoid

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Player A: 0 -- lose 1 -- win >1 -- lose Monotonicity does not imply upward closedness

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Backward Reachability Analysis Characterize losing states for A Pre Why scheme does not work for VASS? Monotonicity does not imply that ideals are closed under Pre

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2-Counter Machines y-- x++ x-- x=0? Is reachable? Problem undecidable

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Simulation of 2-Counter Machines by VASS Games x++ Counter machine VASS game

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Simulation of 2-Counter Machines by VASS Games x-- Counter machine VASS game

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Simulation of 2-Counter Machines by VASS Games x=0? x-- Counter machine VASS game

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Safety undecidable for VASS Games Safety undecidable for Monotonic Games

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B-Downward Closed Games s1s1 s2s2 s3s3

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s1s1 s2s2 s3s3 any set ideal Pre

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Backward Reachability Analysis B-Downward closed games Pre ideal

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Backward Reachability Analysis B-Downward closed games Pre ideal characterization of A-losing states decidability of safety ”nice ordering”

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Backward Reachability Analysis B-LCS Games B-LCS: characterization of A-losing states Safety decidable for B-LCS games ?n ?m !m !n !m Player B can lose messages

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A-Downward Closed Games

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Post

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A-Downward Closed Games Post

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A-Downward Closed Games

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F

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F

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FT

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FTFT Termination all leaves closed Evaluate tree: = OR = AND

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A-Downward Closed Games FTFT Termination guaranteed if is WQO

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A-Downward Closed Games FTFT Safety decidable for A-LCS Games Can we characterize winning states ?

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A Problem for LCS !m ?n sfsf { w w } sfsf characterize Set regular But Not computable

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A-LCS Games Winning set regular But not computable !m LCS A-LCS game

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A-LCS Games Winning set regular But not computable ?m LCS A-LCS game

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A-LCS Games Winning set regular But not computable A-LCS game For each :

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Conclusions and Planned Work Define a WQO on state space Safety properties: reachability of ideals Examples: Timed Petri nets Parameterized systems Broadcast protocols Cache coherence protocols Lossy channel systems, etc.

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Extension to Games Regular Model Checking Stochastic behaviours

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