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Music Basics. Music notation the staff Music notation clefs.

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Presentation on theme: "Music Basics. Music notation the staff Music notation clefs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Music Basics

2 Music notation the staff

3 Music notation clefs

4 Music notation

5 Script letter G

6 Music notation

7 Middle C in G clef

8 Middle C in other clefs

9 Notes in the Grand Staff

10 Pitches Refers to pitch only as in cycles per second 440Hz equals A above middle C 220Hz equals A below middle C

11 Overtone Series All pitches except sine waves have these Different emphasis on different overtones produce different timbres Partials begin on 1, overtones begin on 0

12 Notes Refers to pitch, duration, loudness, etc. Notes equate to cope-events Pitch is the second element of a cope- event

13 Duration

14 Durations

15 Relationships

16 Rests

17 Meter

18 Tempo Fast ( q = 120 ) - Allegro Moderate ( q = 90 ) - Moderato Slow ( q = 60 ) - Adagio

19 Dynamics

20 Articulations

21 Notes sounding alone One after another is called monody Or monophony Or melody Or musical line

22 Tonality Tonality usually means notes sounding primarily according to a given scale Major scales consist of stepwise intervals Major scale: M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 M2 m2 Natural minor scale M2 m2 M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 Notes not in scale called chromatic

23 Key Keys are defined by scales and can be centered around any one of 12 starting notes To create the proper intervallic content some keys must have sharped and flatted notes Key signatures make these easier to read

24 Motives Motives are groups of 3 to 7 notes that have some distinctive property (pitch, rhythm, etc.) Motives are varied in many ways (transposition, inversion, extrapolation, etc.) Motives help identify longer melodic lines

25 Notes sounding together Are called harmony if they move together Are called polyphony or counterpoint if moving offset Fugues and canons are examples of polyphony

26 Harmony Harmony has function (syntax and semantics) Harmonic syntax means what can follow what Harmonic semantics means what constitutes the harmony itself

27 Harmonic syntax and semantics In tonal music, some harmonies can follow other harmonics but not others We use Roman numerals in indicate semantics as in a major scale: I, IV, and V indicate Tonic, Subdominant, and Dominant harmonic called primary functions ii (supertonic), iii (mediant), vi (submediant), and vii (leading-tone), called secondary functions

28 Harmonic syntax I can be followed by anything V is best followed by I (authentic) or vi (deceptive) but never IV IV can be followed by V (mostly) and I ii belongs to the IV family, iii the I family, vi the I family, and vii the V family interchangeably.

29 Harmonic syntax I means home base IV means moving toward V (pre- dominant) V means needs to go home

30 Phrases Music consists of phrases usually as long as a human breath (based on past on singing) Phrases end in cadences Cadences usually end in I (authentic), V, (half), or V-vi (deceptive) Phrases usually come in pairs in tonal music as in (cadences V and then I - question/answer.

31 Modulation Modulation means to subtly change keys for variety Best key changes mean to move from a key 1 sharp or 1 flat more of less in key signature.

32 Periods Phrases group into periods consisting usually of two matching Q and A phrases Periods can repeat, repeat with variation, or contrast

33 Sections Sections consist of two or more periods Sections can consist of contrasting or similar periods

34 Form Form delineates the material of a work or movement of music Form is usually described by u.c. letters in alphabetical order ABA form (called ternary) indicates one musical idea (section A) followed by a contrasting musical idea (section B) followed by a return of section A

35 Structure Structure is NOT form Structure indicates relative importance of musical material (hierarchy) Structure deletes less important musica material in order to highlight the important musical material

36 Example

37 MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface Watch it: “MIDI interface” is redundant Does not create sound Like a musical score Channels tell sequencers (Finale, Sibelius, etc.) when to turn on a channel, turn off a channel, etc. Set the instrument in any channel you want

38 MIDI and Music Notation Ontime: 0; Duration:500 = an eighth-note in music notation Ontime: 845; Duration:260 = gibberish in music notation Result: keep your cope-events in logical ontimes and logical durations Triplets, etc. = 333, 333, 334 durations, etc. If you want good notation-be careful!!!

39 MIDI types Performed MIDI files Must quantize to a given duration that often alters the music severely Non-performed MIDI files Works best for analyzing music

40 Remember Music notation is an algorithm Music notation is an algorithm created by other people Music notation is an algorithm created by other people that severely limits expression Ledger lines, rhythm, pitch, etc. MIDI need not have such limitations Only if you wish to see your music represented

41 Great music is music that: Sells the most? Performed the most? Listened to the most? Talked about the most? Differing arrangements the most? Quoted the most? Lasts the longest?

42 If so The best restaurant would be Burger King The best film would be Titanic The best author would be Stephen King The best hotel would Best Western The best music would be the Star Spangled Banner

43 Then what is it? Best: music that does the most with the least Worst: music that does the least with the most Or Best: music that gets better the more you listen to it Worst: music that you listen to once.

44 Best music is like an onion Keep peeling off the layers and continue to discover something new.

45 Personal taste There is no such thing as good music. There is no such thing as bad music. There is only music you like or don’t like.

46 George Lewis (1952-) improvises via trombone with his Voyager hardware and software a portable computer, 'listens' via a microphone to Lewis' trombone improvisations quickly generates musical responses that make appropriate melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic sense

47 Andrei Andreyevich Markov 1856 - 1922

48 Markov Chains

49 Probability Typically measured between 0.0 and 1.0 For events following another event must total 1.0 Important in statistics Be careful in establishing (e.g., the probability of heads up on a tossed coin is forever 0.5 no matter how many times the coin is tossed).

50 Zero order Markov Chain Pseudo-random choices.

51 First order Markov Chain indicates that the current event will effect the choice of the following event.


53 Second order Markov chain Two successive events will influence the next event


55 Random Walk


57 Example for Markov

58 Markov Chains Are a type of grammar (syntax) Many types of grammars (e.g., finite state, recursive, augmented transition, etc.) These are typically linear Robust grammars require hierarchy Hierarchy is non-linear

59 Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) Markov works for representations (x) for actual states (x) only as in

60 Write code that will analyze first-order Markov info for monophonic music.

61 Define Lisp functions that: will transpose events any distance up or down.

62 a predicate determining whether or not its arg is a cope-event or not.

63 changes the tempo of an eventlist.

64 plays an eventlist backwards.

65 delays the beginning of an eventlist by any amount.

66 makes canons from an eventlist.

67 Assignment: Create Markov code to analyze data representing pitches

68 Send code to me via e-mail before next Thursday

69 Make sure the code works is well documented top down makes sense

70 Your midi files play them and discuss

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