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ANALYTICAL MUSIC THEORY Week 4: Phrase Analysis. What is Phrase Analysis?  Traditional phrase analysis entails parsing the narrative structure of a musical.

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Presentation on theme: "ANALYTICAL MUSIC THEORY Week 4: Phrase Analysis. What is Phrase Analysis?  Traditional phrase analysis entails parsing the narrative structure of a musical."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANALYTICAL MUSIC THEORY Week 4: Phrase Analysis

2 What is Phrase Analysis?  Traditional phrase analysis entails parsing the narrative structure of a musical work into discrete groups. This grouping can include every echelon of its hierarchy, from the immediate level of the subphrase to the large-scale form of the whole piece. Form is articulated by the harmonic structure of a work, combined with a simultaneous and intentional conception of the melodic structure. Although the melody is not present in the analysis graph, the melody helps shape the analysis by determining where phrases begin and end.

3 Identity and Difference  At its most basic, Form is defined by the identity of melodic events. Identifiable melodic events are repeated or transformed (by variation) during the course of works. In identifying form, the sensitive musician must be able to distinguish between repetition of an idea and the introduction of a new idea.

4 Basic Terminology  Western Art Music (WAM) – the Tradition of music founded in Europe and the Americas, including (written) music for orchestra, opera, choir, chamber ensemble, solo instrument, etc.

5 Basic Terminology  Western Art Music (WAM) – the Tradition of music founded in Europe and the Americas, including (written) music for orchestra, opera, choir, chamber ensemble, solo instrument, etc.  Common Practice Era (CPE) – The period of WAM between the Baroque Period and Modern Period (roughly ), defined by functional harmony.

6 Terminology: Theme  Theme – A melodic idea contained within a single “tonic” key and a single phrase.

7 Terminology: Theme  Theme – A melodic idea contained, usually within a single “tonic” key and a single phrase.  Theme Area (TA1, TA2, etc.) – A passage of music defined by a presiding “tonic” key, which must contain at least one theme (although it may include more than one, if they are both defined by the same “tonic” key). Sometimes a Theme Area will contain a phrase in another key; however, in order for this to remain defined as the same Theme Area, it may only be a transposed variation of the theme.

8 Terminology: Theme  Theme – A melodic idea contained, usually within a single “tonic” key and a single phrase.  Theme Area (TA1, TA2, etc.) – A passage of music defined by a presiding “tonic” key, which must contain at least one theme (although it may include more than one, if they are both defined by the same “tonic” key). Sometimes a Theme Area will contain a phrase in another key; however, in order for this to remain defined as the same Theme Area, it may only be a transposed variation of the theme.  Principal Theme (PT1, PT2, etc.) – The theme(s) appearing in TA1 within a musical work, which determine(s) the key of the entire work.

9 Terminology: Theme  Theme – A melodic idea contained within a single “tonic” key and a single phrase.  Theme Area (TA1, TA2, etc.) – A passage of music defined by a single “tonic” key, which must contain at least one theme (although it may include more than one, if they are both defined by the same “tonic” key). Sometimes a Theme Area will contain a phrase in another key; however, in order for this to remain defined as the same Theme Area, it may only be a transposed variation of the theme.  Principal Theme (PT1, PT2, etc.) – The theme(s) appearing in TA1 within a musical work, which determine(s) the key of the entire work.  Secondary Theme(s) (ST1, ST2, etc.) – Themes that appear subsequent to TA1.

10 Terminology: Tonal Structures  Chromaticism – The use of pitches not included in the key signature of a given Theme Area.

11 Terminology: Tonal Structures  Chromaticism – The use of pitches not included in the key signature of a given Theme Area.  Cadence – The completion of a musical idea or group in the harmonic domain. In the CPE, cadences typically include four types: Authentic (PAC and IAC), Half (including the “Phrygian Half Cadence”), Plagal, and Deceptive.

12 A bit more on Cadences The tonal cadence types may be understood according to whether they resolve the tonal tension (dominant-tonic relationship) or not. In the most general sense, this may be represented graphically in the following way:

13 Terminology: Key Relationships  Tonicization – A temporary (often called secondary) harmonic function outside the presiding key within a TA.

14 Terminology: Key Relationships  Tonicization – A temporary (often called secondary) harmonic function outside the presiding key within a TA.  Modulation – A sustained harmonic function in a key different from the TA. Modulation differs from tonicization by the duration of the new key area and the presence of at least one cadence and one phrase beginning in the new key (explained in more detail below).

15 Tonicization vs. Modulation (Examples) Modulation Tonicization

16 Terminology: Grouping  Subphrase – The smallest possible grouping of musical form, the subphrase is a discrete musical idea. However, a subphrase is incomplete (by comparison to larger groupings) because it does not either 1) cadence or 2) resolve the melodic tension.

17 Terminology: Grouping  Subphrase – The smallest possible grouping of musical form, the subphrase is a discrete musical idea. However, a subphrase is incomplete (by comparison to larger groupings) because it does not either 1) cadence or 2) resolve the melodic tension.  Phrase – A grouping of musical form that resolves both the harmonic and melodic tensions with a cadence.

18 Terminology: Grouping  Subphrase – The smallest possible grouping of musical form, the subphrase is a discrete musical idea. However, a subphrase is incomplete (by comparison to larger groupings) because it does not either 1) cadence or 2) resolve the melodic tension.  Phrase – A grouping of musical form that resolves both the harmonic and melodic tensions with a cadence.  Passage – A grouping of musical form, defined by one theme area, including at least one complete phrase.

19 Terminology: Grouping  Subphrase – The smallest possible grouping of musical form, the subphrase is a discrete musical idea. However, a subphrase is incomplete (by comparison to larger groupings) because it does not either 1) cadence or 2) resolve the melodic tension.  Phrase – A grouping of musical form that resolves both the harmonic and melodic tensions with a cadence.  Passage – A grouping of musical form, defined by one theme area, including at least one complete phrase.  Large-scale form – The “shape” of an entire musical work or movement, comprised of all lower levels of its hierarchy.

20 Terminology: Identity  Repetition – The return of a grouping of musical form, where the melody is essentially identical to its previous appearance (slight changes such as embellishment may occur).

21 Terminology: Identity  Repetition – The return of a grouping of musical form, where the melody is essentially identical to its previous appearance (slight changes such as embellishment may occur).  Variation – The return of a grouping of musical form, where the melody and/ or harmony are significantly altered through transposition, different melody in one sub-grouping, or some other factor.

22 Terminology: Identity  Repetition – The return of a grouping of musical form, where the melody is essentially identical to its previous appearance (slight changes such as embellishment may occur).  Variation – The return of a grouping of musical form, where the melody and/ or harmony are significantly altered through transposition, different melody in one sub-grouping, or some other factor.  Transformation – The process of change to a musical grouping in the large-scale, by relation to other groupings. For example, if the secondary theme returns in the tonic key of the principal theme (as it does in Sonata form), we may describe it as having been transformed.

23 Analytical Tools

24 Sample Usage of Tools abcda’b’

25 More Details… abcda’b’

26 All Details… a b cda’b’

27 Thank You!


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