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High Redshift Quasar Survey Survey Science Group Workshop, 2013 High1 Resort Yiseul Jeon, Myungshin Im, W.-K. Park, J. H. Kim, M. Karouzos, J.-W. Kim,

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Presentation on theme: "High Redshift Quasar Survey Survey Science Group Workshop, 2013 High1 Resort Yiseul Jeon, Myungshin Im, W.-K. Park, J. H. Kim, M. Karouzos, J.-W. Kim,"— Presentation transcript:

1 High Redshift Quasar Survey Survey Science Group Workshop, 2013 High1 Resort Yiseul Jeon, Myungshin Im, W.-K. Park, J. H. Kim, M. Karouzos, J.-W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, H. Jun, C. Choi, D. Kim, D. Kim, J. Hong, M. Hyun, and Y. C. Taak Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Seoul National University

2 Contents I.Introduction  History of our Universe  High Redshift Quasars II.Method of Study  Multi-wavelength Data  Color Selection  Current Status III.Summary

3 I. Introduction

4 Neutral Hydrogen Recombination First Star/First Galaxy/First SMBH z ~ 20 Reionization z ~ 10 Robertson et al BB Dark Age Reionization Galaxy Formation Galaxy Formation History of our Universe

5  Quasar - An energetic active galactic nucleus - Powered by an accretion disc  High Redshift Quasar - One of the brightest objects - Useful for investigating the early universe - >50 quasars at z>5 discovered High Redshift Quasars Intrinsic Properties of early SMBHs Mass Growth of SMBHs & Evolution of QLF Environmental Effect due to Quasars Reionization of IGM Artist's impression of quasar GB (z=4.3)

6 1. Growth of Super Massive Black Holes

7 1) SMBH at z~7 SMBH of 10 9 M ⊙ already exists age ~0.8 Gyr

8 1. Growth of Super Massive Black Holes 1) SMBH at z~7 First SMBH already exists age < 1 Gyr → must have formed at very early time. 2) Redshift Desert at 5

9 1. Growth of Super Massive Black Holes 1) SMBH at z~7 First SMBH already exists age < 1 Gyr → must have formed at very early 2) Redshift Desert at 5

10 Robertson et al IGM attenuation (Madau 1996) ↓ 2. Reionization of Intergalactic Medium BB Dark Age Reionization Galaxy Formation

11 2. Reionization of Intergalactic Medium Gunn-Peterson trough Fan et al Robertson et al z=6.13 z=5.93 z=5.83 Fan et al. 2006

12 Robertson et al Willott et al ◇ SDSS main △ SDSS deep stripe ● CFHQS Quasar Luminosity Function at z~6 At z>10: First stars (e.g., Kashlinsky et al. 2005) At z~6: Star Forming Galaxy vs. Quasar At z<2.5: mostly by AGNs (e.g., Haardt & Madau 1996) ? 3. Evolution of Quasar Luminosity Function

13 → New technique with New Deep/Wide survey data Limitations of Previous Studies  Redshift Desert at 5

14 II. Method of Study

15 Quasar candidate selection i z Y J H K e.g.) z~7 quasar (blue) i)z Drop-out ii)Bluer Y-J than Brown Dwarf(green) iii)Power-law SED + Quasars Δ Model Brown Dwarfs + Star-forming galaxy + Passive Evolving Galaxy

16 Quasar candidate selection 1. Match multi-wavelength catalogues 2. Select quasar candidates using color-color diagram 3. Remove spurious objects by eyeball rejection 4. Do photometry on original images 5. Imaging follow-up 6. Spectroscopy of remaining candidates

17 Quasar candidate selection OpticalNIRIR - SDSS - CFHTLS-Wide (a) - CQUEAN Is & Iz (b) - UKIDSS LAS & DXS (c) - IMS (b) - Spitzer Space Telescope Ch 1 & Ch 2 (a) 3 mag deeper than SDSS z-band (b) available only for CEOU (c) only accessible to UKIDSS collaboration - Multi-wavelength catalogues

18 On-going High-z Quasar Survey of CEOU Redshift5—6666~7 Data SDSS UKIDSS LAS CQUEAN Is & Iz SDSS UKIDSS LAS SEGUE BOAO J UKIRT J CFHT MegaPipe IMS(UKIRT J/Y) UKIDSS DXS SWIRE Field SDSS DR7 UKIDSS LAS DR7 SEGUE 2 ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2, Lockman Hole, EGS, COSMOS, VIMOS Area [deg 2 ]~4000~1000~130 Depth [AB]z < 19.5J < 19.2z err < 0.1J err < 0.15J < 22.5

19 Quasar Selection at 5

20 Quasar Selection at 5

21 Quasar Selection at 5

22 Quasar Selection at z~7 Redshift5—6666~7 Data SDSS UKIDSS LAS CQUEAN Is & Iz SDSS UKIDSS LAS SEGUE BOAO J UKIRT J CFHT MegaPipe IMS (UKIRT J/Y) UKIDSS DXS SWIRE Field SDSS DR7 UKIDSS LAS DR7 SEGUE 2 ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2, Lockman Hole, EGS, COSMOS, VIMOS Area [deg 2 ]~4000~1000~130 Depth [AB]z < 19.5J < 19.2z err < 0.1J err < 0.15J < 22.5 Mauna 2009

23 Quasar Selection at z~7  The most distant known quasar at z=7.085 (Mortlock et al. 2011)  Ongoing & Future Optical/Near-IR Surveys Willott et al Intermediate-wide medium-deep survey is needed. UKIRT NIR Survey !

24 IMS Fields FieldRADec Area (deg 2 ) Optical Coverage (mag/deg 2 ) NIRIR XMM-LSS02:21:20-04:3011 CFHTLS-W1 (35 MegaPipe z-fields, z ~ 25AB/72deg 2,i- band for many fields), NOAO DWS, Maidanak Y-band UKIDSS DXS+UDS (3.75, JK) IMS (7.5, J) SWIR E CFHTLS-W208:54-04:1527 CFHLTLS-W2 (19 MegaPipe z-fields, z~25AB/49 deg2) IMS (27, YJ) Lockman Hole10:45:0058:0012 CFHT MegaPipe Archive (15 fields, i-data in limited area), Subaru (~18 fields, I = 26 AB, B=27AB) UKIDSS DXS (6.75, JK) IMS (5.25, J) SWIR E EGS14:1754:3038 CFHTLS-W3 (44 MegaPipe z-fields, z~25ABmag/49 deg2, i-band data too) IMS (38.25, YJ) ELAIS-N116:11:0055:0014 CFHT MegaPipe (9 fields, z~25AB mag) Subaru Deep I (18 fields (5 deg2) UKIDSS DXS+UDS (9, JK) IMS (4.5, J) SWIR E ELAIS-N216:36:4841:01:455 CFHT MegaPipe (6 fields, z~25 AB mag), Subaru Deep I (18 fields (5 deg2) IMS (5.25, J) SWIR E VIMOS22:1700:2025 CFHLTLS-W4 (20 MegaPipe z-fields, z~25AB/16 deg2, i- band data available too UKIDSS DXS+UDS (9, JHK) IMS (15.75, YJ)

25 Quasar Selection at z~6 Redshift5—6666~7 Data SDSS UKIDSS LAS CQUEAN Is & Iz SDSS UKIDSS LAS SEGUE BOAO J UKIRT J CFHT MegaPipe IMS(UKIRT J/Y) UKIDSS DXS SWIRE Field SDSS DR7 UKIDSS LAS DR7 SEGUE 2 ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2, Lockman Hole, EGS, COSMOS, VIMOS Area [deg 2 ]~4000~1000~130 Depth [AB]z < 19.5J < 19.2z err < 0.1J err < 0.15J < 22.5

26 NIR spectrum by IRTF, SpeX Redshift5—6666~7 Data SDSS UKIDSS LAS CQUEAN Is&Iz SDSS UKIDSS LAS SEGUE BOAO J UKIRT J CFHT Megapipe UKIRT J UKIDSS DXS SWIRE Field SDSS DR7 UKIDSS LAS DR7 SEGUE 2 ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2, Lockman Hole, EGS, COSMOS, VIMOS Area [deg 2 ]~2000~1000~40/200 Depth [AB]z < 19.5J < 19.2z err < 0.1J err < 0.15J < 22.5 Color-Color Diagram (1) From SEGUE data confirmed by HET and follow-up NIR spec. at IRTF (2) From UKIDSS LAS data confirmed by Magellan Quasar Selection at z~6

27 Quasar candidate selection  Confirm as Quasar!  Calculate redshift by identifying redshifted Lyman break and UV emission lines  Measure SMBH mass using UV emission lines such as CIV λ1549  Investigate Lyman alpha forest to understand the ionization state of IGM - Spectroscopy of candidates

28 III. Summary

29 Limitations of Previous High-z Quasar Survey 1. Growth of SMBH 2. Reionization of IGM 3. Evolution of quasar LF Deep/Wide Survey Data with New selection technique –SMBH evolution –IGM ionization process CQUEAN/UKIRT Thank you

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38 On-going High-z Quasar Survey of CEOU Redshift5—6666~7 Data SDSS UKIDSS LAS CQUEAN Is & Iz SDSS UKIDSS LAS SEGUE BOAO J UKIRT J CFHT MegaPipe IMS(UKIRT J/Y) UKIDSS DXS SWIRE Field SDSS DR7 UKIDSS LAS DR7 SEGUE 2 ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-N2, Lockman Hole, EGS, COSMOS, VIMOS Area [deg 2 ]~4000~1000~200 Depth [AB]z < 19.5J < 19.2z err < 0.1J err < 0.15J < 22.5 Published< Prediction* (increasing) ~40 (x10) < —10 2 (x50) 10 0 —10 1 (x10) *assuming continuous density evolution of the high-z quasar LF (Willott+10)

39 Redshift SMBH Mass Growth Redshift5—6666~7 Published< Prediction~40< — —10 1 ① Accretion from Seed BH If BH mass increases by accretion with Eddington rate, where t Edd = 0.45 Gyr and ε is the radiative effiency From seed mass of 10 2 M ⊙, it takes 0.9 Gyr. And From 10 5 M ⊙, 0.5 Gyr. (Volonteri10)  Not enough for 10 9 M ⊙ at z~7 ② By Galaxy Merger  Possible from SAM in ΛCDM (Li+07) Existence of the most massive SMBH

40 Redshift SMBH Mass Growth HI Fraction in IGM Redshift5—6666~7 Published< Prediction~40< — —10 1  Abrupt transition? (Fan+06)  Continuous process? (Becker+07)

41 Redshift Redshift M 1450 SMBH Mass Growth HI Fraction in IGM QLF at z~6 Redshift5—6666~7 Published< Prediction~40< — —10 1 Also, QLF of 5


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