What We Know About Reionization: A or B? Sloan quasars Fraction of flux transmitted “…the universe is approaching the reionization epoch at z~6” (Becker et al. 2001)
Simulations dark matter dynamics gas dynamics star formation metal cooling exact physics of primeval plasma fine print (secondary electrons, Ly- pumping, …) radiative transfer That’s the key! the only phenomenology! Note: non-existing things are not included
Cosmological Parameters 2003 Baryons: 4% Dark matter:23% Dark energy:73% … WMAP
Star Formation Schmidt Law: Parameters: star formation efficiency SF UV emission efficiency UV ( =E UV /M * c 2 )
How It All Happens… Galaxies HII regions Neutral hydrogen 4 chimps
How It All Happens: ABC Pre-overlap: H II regions expand in the low density gas. Overlap: H II regions merge – the moment of reionization. Post-overlap: High density regions are being ionized from the outsize.
Redshift of Overlap Pre-overlap Overlap Post-overlap “A redshift of reionization”
WMAP model Individual spectra of bright quasars are very similar to that of SLOAN quasars. Large galaxies at z~4 have colors identical to observed Lyman Break Galaxies. Star formation rate is consistent with observational measurements at z~4. Smallest galaxies formed in the simulation look like dwarf spheroidals in all their properties, including abundance (no satellite problem). Lyman-alpha forest (including metal absorption systems) is consistent with observations. but …
But… (as of Oct 2003) =17+4% =12+6% =10+6% Polarization Temperature Galaxy clustering
Conclusions I Reionization proceeds in 3 stages: In the pre-overlap stage more-or-less isolated H II regions expand into the neutral IGM (bubbles of ionized gas in the sea of neutral gas). Measurement of high indicates that new physics was present in this stage. During the overlap isolated HII regions merge together (looks like a mess). It happened at z REI = 6.1 + 0.3. In the post-overlap stage the remains of the neutral gas are being ionized from the outside – most of them become Lyman-limit systems (bubbles of neutral gas in the sea of ionized gas).
Conclusions II Our theoretical models reach the stage when we are able to make a quantitative comparison between theory and all existing observational data. Future observations will be matched by the adequate progress in our abilities to model formation of early galaxies and supermassive black holes. If this decade is a decade of CMB in astronomy, the next one will be a decade of reionization.