Collect & Display Data 網路 via Wired LAN via Wireless LAN via Telephone line via Mobile communication GPRS/GSM 資料收集到 DB PHP, Java, etc. DBMS Report VB, VC, BCB, etc. Report & Control DB 資料顯示 Table, Chart, Picture for current / max / min / avg, etc. Table, Chart, Picture for History data.
RF 150~600 MHz
Spectrum Technology, Inc.
Base Monitoring Unit Receives the transmitted data from the wireless remote sensing units, displays the current values, and alarm status. Pre-defined high or low temperature conditions trigger the red alarm indicators and the alarm sounds to notify you of the situation in real-time.
Wireless Remote Sensing Unit Measures the temperature and humidity value and transmits the data wirelessly to the local monitoring unit. It transmits the data over 400MHz radio frequency band and operates with 2Pcs AA batteries (included), which can be installed and replaced very easily by the end user. Battery life is 6 months. Remote units require a radiation shield.
MHz, Low power RF RS232 Serial port
Radiation Shield Protect your sensor from rain, solar radiation, or other sources of heat that can distort measurements.
Spec Log ® Crop Monitor Software Log weather data on your PC and produce the reports you need to manage plant growth. Reports include: T/RH Hours, DIF Temperature, Degree-Days, Daily and Monthly Summaries.
Weather station ET (Penman) Radiation Wind Rain T & H Soil temp Leaf wetness Enable use of the actual/historical data to plan irrigation strategy for future situations
Field station transmitter Reliable and simple Built-in battery for 5 year No external antenna Range – max :1-4 km Frequency: 150 – 600 MHz Built-in interface for: Three Tensiometers Three TDT Soil moisture Water meter / tipping bucket Weather station Other digital or analog inputs 150~600 MHz
Principles of Operation Data is sampled every 15 minutes and transmitted every 30 minutes to the base station. Wireless data transfer from the sensors to the collector or a PC Downloading the data from the collector or the PC via telephone line or cellular Data processing and presentation for decision-making in real time Data collecting for historical analyses and research
Wireless data transfer Sending range: Up to 1– 4 km Field Station Field Collector Telephone line Cellular
Extending the Transmitting Range via the Repeater Range: Up to 7– 10 km Repeater range 1- 4 km
Remote accesses to data Loc al PC Field Collector Telephone line Cellular
Decagon Device, Inc., USA
ECH 2 O Probe and Em5R
902~928 MHz ISM
Spectrum Technology, Inc. Designed specifically for WatchDog stations, the low- power Spread Spectrum radio technology does not require an FCC license. You benefit by locating your station in an optimum microclimate to capture valuable weather data. System includes four AA rechargeable batteries (replaces the station's alkaline batteries), base station transceiver/antenna with power adapter, transceiver/antenna with solar power for the WatchDog station, and mounting hardware. 900 MHz
WatchDog Stations Model 900ET Evapotranspiration (ET), solar radiation, wind speed/direction, wind chill, dew point, temperature, RH and rainfall. Three (3) available external sensor channels for leaf wetness, soil moisture or other sensors. Model 800 Station This 8-channel data logging station is used for: Soil moisture measurement, Multiple sensor measurements, Microclimate and field research. Model 700 Weather Station Wind speed/direction, temperature, RH and rainfall. Has four (4) available external sensor channels for soil moisture, soil temperature or leaf wetness sensors Model 600 Weather Station Wind speed/direction, temperature, and rainfall. Has four (4) available external sensor channels for soil moisture, soil temperature or leaf wetness sensors Model 550 Weather Station Portable Station Lets You Document Real-Time Weather Conditions At Any Site. Includes wind speed/direction, temperature and RH. Model 525 Weather Station Portable Station Lets You Document Real-Time Weather Conditions At Any Site. Includes wind speed/direction and temperature.
Campbell Scientific, Inc. The CR205 Datalogger includes an on- board 915 MHz spread spectrum radio. The CR205's input channel configuration and small size is optimal for measuring one or two sensors. The CR215 Datalogger includes an on- board 2.4 GHz spread spectrum radio. The RF401 Spread Spectrum Radio has a 910 to 918 MHz operating frequency range, which is allocated to the US and Canada. The RF411 spread spectrum transceiver has an operating frequency range of 920 to 928 MHz, which is allocated to Australia/Israel.
GSM/GPRS 1900/850 MHz
Campbell Scientific, Inc.
Comparison between wireless LAN & PAN Feature WiFi (IEEE b) Bluetooth (IEEE ) ZigBee (IEEE ) Radio DSSS 1 FHSS 2 DSSS Data rate 11 Mbps1 Mbps250 kbps Nodes per master 32764,000 Slave enumeration latency Up to 3 secUp to 10 sec30 ms Data typeVideo, audio, graphics, pictures, files Audio, graphics, pictures, files Small data packet Range 100 m10 m70 m ExtendabilityRoaming possibleNoYes Battery lifeHours1 week1 year+ Bill of material$9$6$3 ComplexityComplexVery complexSimple 1 DSSS: Direct –sequence spread spectrum FHSS: Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Bluetooth 30 days (park 1.28s) /ZigBee more battery-effective at all beacon intervals greater than 0.246s At beacon interval ~1s, 15.4/ZigBee battery life 85 days /ZigBee vs Bluetooth
Wireless PAN Bluetooth 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHz 1 Mbps
“the software” Network, Security & Application layers Brand management IEEE “the hardware” Physical & Media Access Control layers PHY 868MHz / 915MHz / 2.4GHz MAC Network Star / Mesh / Cluster-Tree Security 32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption Application API ZigBee Alliance IEEE Customer Silicon Stack App IEEE & ZigBee In Context
What is ZigBee? “ Internet Everything ” Your toaster gets an IP address Wireless standard formed by an alliance of industry leaders Motorola, Phillips, Samsung, Cisco … over 100 companies!!
Applications ZigBee Wireless Control that Simply Works RESIDENTIAL/ LIGHT COMMERCIAL CONTROL CONSUMER ELECTRONICS TV VCR DVD/CD remote security HVAC lighting control access control lawn & garden irrigation PC & PERIPHERALS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL asset mgt process control environmental energy mgt PERSONAL HEALTH CARE BUILDING AUTOMATION security HVAC AMR lighting control access control mouse keyboard joystick patient monitoring fitness monitoring
Revolution in Computer, Communication and MEMS 0.5 oz, 2.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch 25 lb, 19.5 x 5.5 x 16 inch ~14 mW~ 64 W ~ $35~ $6K (today) 512 KB Flash160 KB Floppies 128 KB RAM KB RAM 4 MHz4.77 MHz MICAZ Mote (2005)Original IBM PC (1981)
Features of Intel ’ s Imote ARM* core SRAM FLASH BT radio Stackable connectors (top and bottom) 2.4 GHz antenna Multicolor status LED Optional external antenna connector Optional voltage regulator (bottom)
Imote 2 --Top View Basic I/O connector Dialog PMIC 36 mm 48 mm PXA273 LED Crystals
Imote 2 -- Bottom View 36 mm 48 mm Advanced I/O connector Advanced I/O connector Crystal Antenna Optional SMA connector Mini USB Connector CC2420
Bandwave Technology, Inc. Taiwan Import 4 Sensors on a chip T: Temperature (dry bulb) (-40~120 o C) RH: Relative Humidity (0~99%) TSR: Total Solar Radiation PAR: Photosynthetically Active Radiation
Pod deployment in Antarctica Pod deployment in Space Center
Pod deployment in Greenhouse
Sensor Web Deployment at a Recharge Basin Facility
Wireless LAN b/g WiFi 2.4 GHz 11 Mbits
Light Sensor PICNIC / Wireless LAN device CCD LED/Fan Humidity & Temperature sensors Field Server of Japan
Field Server 架構 1.Accurate Measurement Air-temperature Humidity 2.Sampling Gas (CO 2, NOx, SOx) Insects Microbes Virus Dusts 3.Cooling
Field Server of Japan PICNIC card DDA Type FPAA Type 有較開放式的組成架構，系統性能可隨著市 場零組件功能進步而發展， FS 製作可以相當 經濟 容易結合 IPv4 與 web 介面，架設與使用容易 改變了傳統量測儀器之架構，前端只提供感 測器原始量測之數位訊號 開放式架構可彈性適用不同環境需求，在農 業有很大的應用發展潛能 體積相對較大 功能之發揮依賴後端各類型應用軟體之開發
Field Server Engine DDS-type PICNIC Ver.1.0 FPAA-type 24 bit 10 bit 24 bit Ver.2.0Ver.3.0
Field Server Engine-PICNIC PICNIC (Programmable Interface Controller with Network Interface Card) 10cm x 7cm 內含 10bits 解析度 A/D 轉換的單晶片微電腦 PIC16F877 ， 4 點 0-5V 之間類比訊號輸入， 輸出電壓範圍符合的感測器模組可直接連結， 如溫度、濕度、日照、導電度、葉面濕度等 4 點的 5V 輸出、 4 點 5V 輸入 乙太網路控制晶片 RTL8019AS RS-232 及 RJ-45 接頭，支援 TCP 、 UDP 等網 路傳輸協定，內可設定一組 IP ，並提供 WEB 網頁介面，因此接上網路即可使用 對於一般農業生產管理與環境量測大致足夠
Specification of DDS-Type 1.Web server 2.DDS (1 Hz – 70 MHz) 3.24bit-AD converter (8 ch) 4.10bit AD converter (8 ch) 5.10bit DA converter (1 ch) 6.Power photo MOS relay(2 ch) 7.Serial I/O (RS-232C) 8.DC-DC converter (in: 4-34 V, out: 5 V) DDS: Direct Digital Synthesizer
Measurement by DDS Type ElementPhysical parameter Humidity Rainfall Leaf wetness Soil moisture EC Water level Water stress Capacitance Impedance Capacitance DD Ｓ Material AD-Conv.
FPAA F ield P rogrammable A nalog A rray 20 OP-AMP Resistor Capacitor Cross-bar Switch Field Server Engine – FPAA 型 Multiplier Soil-moisture sensor EC sensor Plant moisture sensor Humidity sensor pH ， Pressure ， Acceleration Infrared-Visible LED/LD Photo sensor Microphone sensor Speaker emitter RF antenna
Inside of the Field Server
Real-time data Database Live Camera Monitoring results created by Agent System
Sample XML file and agent action XML configuration file get raw data exchange data zoom & snapshot Agent Program
Data Collecting Method PC-Cluster Data gathering agent （ Web crawler ） Internet ADSL CATV Mobile Global IP Private IP FSG Firewall Private network of FieldServers Provider VPN FSG: Field Server Gateway
Field Server of Japan Monitoring page Main page
Sensors: T & RH from Sensirion AG The temperature sensor and the humidity sensor together form a single unit. This also enables an accurate and point- precise determination of the dew point, without incurring errors due to temperature gradients between the humidity and the temperature sensors. Through the unique linkage of these sensor elements with the signal amplifier unit, the analog-to-digital converter, the calibration data memory, as well as the digital, bus-ready interface, all on a surface area of a few square millimeters.
Sensors: soil related Air or Soil Temperature sensor
Sensors: Soil related Easy to install Easy to understand (centibar) Measures small soil samples Requires continuous maintenance Tensiometer 張力計
Soil moisture sensor Volumetric water content Fast responds Robust & Reliable Maintenance free Measuring large soil volume Can be operated in all crops
Soil moisture sensor The Echo probe measures the dielectric constant of the soil in order to find its volumetric water content. Since the dielectric constant of water is much higher than that of air or soil minerals, the dielectric constant of the soil is a sensitive measure of water content. The ECHO probe has a very low power requirement and high resolution. This gives you the ability to make as many measurements as you want (even hourly) over a long period of time (like a growing season, for example), with minimal battery usage.
ECHO Probes: Models and Specifications ECHO probe model EC-20 (20cm length) ECHO probe model EC-10 (10cm length
ECH2O DataTrac (Graphing Software)
Dielectric Leaf wetness sensor The Dielectric Leaf Wetness Sensor, like its name implies, measures surface wetness by measuring changes in the dielectric on the sensor surface. Designed to mimic the thermodynamic properties of a leaf in shape and dimensions. Specifications are in development by Decagon Device, Inc.