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Wireless monitoring & control in Agriculture 方煒 台大生機系教授.

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Presentation on theme: "Wireless monitoring & control in Agriculture 方煒 台大生機系教授."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Wireless monitoring & control in Agriculture 方煒 台大生機系教授

3 Why Wireless ? Boston central telephone station at 40 Pearl Street after the blizzard of 1881

4 Wireless Revolution TI REGENCY TR-1, 1955, $450 (today) 1 st Transistor, 1947 Sony TR-610, 1958 Integrated Circuit, st Integrated Circuit, ~1958 Today ~$5

5 Outlines  WPAN  WLAN  WMAN  WWAN  WSN  WC  RF  GSM/GPRS  Bluetooth  ZigBee  WiFi  Sensors

6 無線個域網路: WPAN 目前 IEEE 所制訂的 WPAN 大致有四: IEEE Bluetooth ,藍芽 v1.1 IEEE Bluetooth ,藍芽補充規範,降低與 WiFi 同範疇內運用時的相互干擾問題 IEEE WiMEDIA ,標準速、高速 WPAN IEEE a UWB ,高速 WPAN IEEE ZigBee ,低速 WPAN ( 又稱 WSAN, S 代 表 Sensor)

7 無線區域網路: WLAN  IEEE 於 1999 年提出 IEEE 的 WLAN 標準,以此標準 為基礎的 WiFi 成為今日最廣大普及的無線應用,而這樣 的發展合作依然在持續中。  IEEE 最早提出的三種 WLAN 實現方式,包括紅外線( IR , Infrared )、 5GHz 頻段的 11a 、 2.4GHz 頻段的 11b 等, IR 版 沒有獲得業者支持,畢竟與過往的 IrDA 無太大差別(都 有角度方位限制、都無法穿牆通訊),而 11a 的流行不如 11b ,且 2003 年 11g 新規出現後幾乎取代多數的 11a 運用, 今日是以 11b 、 11g 為主流。  IEEE 在制訂 11g (也稱為 EDR , Extended Data Rate )時, 最初是設定能突破 20Mbps ,但最終確立為 54Mbps ,同樣 的目前尚在制訂中的更新版: IEEE n ,將設定突破 100Mbps ,但許多消息都指出, 11n 將會有 540Mbps ~ 640Mbps 的速率。

8 無線都域網路: WMAN  IEEE 對於 WMAN 的規範主要在 IEEE , 也是 Intel 所力倡的 WiMAX  WiMAX 主要訴求在 5 ~ 8 英哩內的無線寬頻 通訊,必要時也可擴展至 50km ,但那已與 WWAN 更為混淆、重疊。

9 無線廣域網路: WWAN  一般的手機,如 GSM 、 PHS (比較像 WMAM ,因為其基地台覆蓋範圍 較小,僅一般 GSM 基地台的 1/5 ~ 1/6 )、 CDMA 等就已是 WWAN ,但 是 IEEE 還是提出其 WWAN 想法,並編列為 IEEE 以進行後續研擬 發展。  GSM 畢竟是以交換、切換( Switch )為主的通訊網路,而一般資訊用 的網路是以封包( Packet )為主,兩者從根基點上就有所不同,雖然 GSM 基地台也能提供資料傳輸,如 GPRS 、 EDGE 等,但傳速依然有限, 即便換成 3G 的 CDMA 也依然是以語音通話為主的設計,資料傳遞一直 被看待成延伸、輔助之用,相信這是 IEEE 要另訂 WWAN 的動機之一, 此點可從 IEEE 將 的制訂目標命為「 MBWA , Mobile Broadband Wireless Access 」而得知。  目前 IEEE 的進展訊息仍相當有限,僅知將使用 3.5GHz 頻段,每 個行動用戶端裝置至少能有超過 1Mbps 的存取速率,即便在都市、都 會的多阻隔通信環境下,也能在 250km/hr 的高速移動下進行存取。

10 無線感測器網路 : WSN  隨著 IC 與電子通訊技術的發展以及 無線傳輸科技之普遍,量測系統趨向 無線化、小型化、模組化、網路化及 經濟與省電化發展。  分散式多頻道遠端監控與即時分析 之資料擷取系統的架設已由有線發展 至無線。

11 Sensor Network Interface electronics, radio and microcontroller Soil moisture probe Mote Antenna Gateway Server Internet Communications barrier Sensor field

12 Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Watershed Sensor Network

13 無線傳輸 (Wireless Communication)  RF (無線電波): 100~600 MHz, etc.  GPRS 是 GSM 通信升級至 GPRS 網路,傳輸率理論可達 160 Kbps  b/g :無線 Internet 佈建、筆記型電腦 支援 TCP/IP 、 eathernet 等,使用 2.4GHz b/11Mbps 、 g/54Mbps , 1Mbps 傳輸距離可達 570 公尺 Router/Bridge  IEEE ( ZigBee ):家電、電腦、感測器,遊戲和玩具 2.4GHz 、 868MHz (歐洲)以及 915MHz (美國) 傳輸距離規格值 75 米 / 傳輸速率介於 20kbps ~ 250kbps 之間 低耗電待機模式下使用 2 顆 5 號電池可驅動 6 個月  IEEE ( Bluetooth ):手機、印表機、汽車、醫療設備 技術誕生於 10 年前,解決數據短距離無線傳輸。 2.4GHz  選用依據:頻寬、傳輸率、獲取容易、使用方便、長期使用經濟、技術經驗普 及等因素

14 Collect & Display Data  網路 via Wired LAN via Wireless LAN via Telephone line via Mobile communication GPRS/GSM  資料收集到 DB PHP, Java, etc.  DBMS  Report VB, VC, BCB, etc.  Report & Control  DB 資料顯示 Table, Chart, Picture for current / max / min / avg, etc. Table, Chart, Picture for History data.

15 RF 150~600 MHz

16 Spectrum Technology, Inc.

17 Base Monitoring Unit  Receives the transmitted data from the wireless remote sensing units, displays the current values, and alarm status. Pre-defined high or low temperature conditions trigger the red alarm indicators and the alarm sounds to notify you of the situation in real-time.

18 Wireless Remote Sensing Unit  Measures the temperature and humidity value and transmits the data wirelessly to the local monitoring unit. It transmits the data over 400MHz radio frequency band and operates with 2Pcs AA batteries (included), which can be installed and replaced very easily by the end user. Battery life is 6 months. Remote units require a radiation shield.

19 MHz, Low power RF RS232 Serial port

20 Radiation Shield  Protect your sensor from rain, solar radiation, or other sources of heat that can distort measurements.

21 Spec Log ® Crop Monitor Software  Log weather data on your PC and produce the reports you need to manage plant growth. Reports include: T/RH Hours, DIF Temperature, Degree-Days, Daily and Monthly Summaries.

22 2005 售價 NT$ 34: 1 Ex. rate NT$ 6630 NT$ 4930 NT$ 2550 NT$ 6766 NT$

23 Netafim, Isreal

24 Weather station  ET (Penman)  Radiation  Wind  Rain  T & H  Soil temp  Leaf wetness Enable use of the actual/historical data to plan irrigation strategy for future situations

25 Field station transmitter Reliable and simple Built-in battery for 5 year No external antenna Range – max :1-4 km Frequency: 150 – 600 MHz Built-in interface for:  Three Tensiometers  Three TDT Soil moisture  Water meter / tipping bucket  Weather station  Other digital or analog inputs 150~600 MHz

26 Principles of Operation Data is sampled every 15 minutes and transmitted every 30 minutes to the base station. Wireless data transfer from the sensors to the collector or a PC Downloading the data from the collector or the PC via telephone line or cellular Data processing and presentation for decision-making in real time Data collecting for historical analyses and research

27 Wireless data transfer Sending range: Up to 1– 4 km Field Station Field Collector Telephone line Cellular

28 Extending the Transmitting Range via the Repeater Range: Up to 7– 10 km Repeater range 1- 4 km

29 Remote accesses to data Loc al PC Field Collector Telephone line Cellular

30 Decagon Device, Inc., USA

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33 ECH 2 O Probe and Em5R

34 Em5, Em5R

35 Rm1

36 902~928 MHz ISM

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38 Spectrum Technology, Inc.  Designed specifically for WatchDog stations, the low- power Spread Spectrum radio technology does not require an FCC license. You benefit by locating your station in an optimum microclimate to capture valuable weather data.  System includes four AA rechargeable batteries (replaces the station's alkaline batteries), base station transceiver/antenna with power adapter, transceiver/antenna with solar power for the WatchDog station, and mounting hardware. 900 MHz

39 WatchDog Stations Model 900ET Evapotranspiration (ET), solar radiation, wind speed/direction, wind chill, dew point, temperature, RH and rainfall. Three (3) available external sensor channels for leaf wetness, soil moisture or other sensors. Model 800 Station This 8-channel data logging station is used for: Soil moisture measurement, Multiple sensor measurements, Microclimate and field research. Model 700 Weather Station Wind speed/direction, temperature, RH and rainfall. Has four (4) available external sensor channels for soil moisture, soil temperature or leaf wetness sensors Model 600 Weather Station Wind speed/direction, temperature, and rainfall. Has four (4) available external sensor channels for soil moisture, soil temperature or leaf wetness sensors Model 550 Weather Station Portable Station Lets You Document Real-Time Weather Conditions At Any Site. Includes wind speed/direction, temperature and RH. Model 525 Weather Station Portable Station Lets You Document Real-Time Weather Conditions At Any Site. Includes wind speed/direction and temperature.

40 Campbell Scientific, Inc.  The CR205 Datalogger includes an on- board 915 MHz spread spectrum radio. The CR205's input channel configuration and small size is optimal for measuring one or two sensors.  The CR215 Datalogger includes an on- board 2.4 GHz spread spectrum radio.  The RF401 Spread Spectrum Radio has a 910 to 918 MHz operating frequency range, which is allocated to the US and Canada.  The RF411 spread spectrum transceiver has an operating frequency range of 920 to 928 MHz, which is allocated to Australia/Israel.

41 GSM/GPRS 1900/850 MHz

42 GSM Introduction

43 Radio Interface

44 GPRS

45 Campbell Scientific, Inc.

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48 Comparison between wireless LAN & PAN Feature WiFi (IEEE b) Bluetooth (IEEE ) ZigBee (IEEE ) Radio DSSS 1 FHSS 2 DSSS Data rate 11 Mbps1 Mbps250 kbps Nodes per master 32764,000 Slave enumeration latency Up to 3 secUp to 10 sec30 ms Data typeVideo, audio, graphics, pictures, files Audio, graphics, pictures, files Small data packet Range 100 m10 m70 m ExtendabilityRoaming possibleNoYes Battery lifeHours1 week1 year+ Bill of material$9$6$3 ComplexityComplexVery complexSimple 1 DSSS: Direct –sequence spread spectrum FHSS: Frequency-hopping spread spectrum

49 Bluetooth 30 days (park 1.28s) /ZigBee more battery-effective at all beacon intervals greater than 0.246s At beacon interval ~1s, 15.4/ZigBee battery life 85 days /ZigBee vs Bluetooth

50 Wireless PAN Bluetooth 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHz 1 Mbps

51 Bluetooth

52 Wireless PAN ZigBee 433, 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz 250 kbps

53 “the software” Network, Security & Application layers Brand management IEEE “the hardware” Physical & Media Access Control layers PHY 868MHz / 915MHz / 2.4GHz MAC Network Star / Mesh / Cluster-Tree Security 32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption Application API ZigBee Alliance IEEE Customer Silicon Stack App IEEE & ZigBee In Context

54 What is ZigBee?  “ Internet Everything ” Your toaster gets an IP address  Wireless standard formed by an alliance of industry leaders  Motorola, Phillips, Samsung, Cisco … over 100 companies!!

55 Applications ZigBee Wireless Control that Simply Works RESIDENTIAL/ LIGHT COMMERCIAL CONTROL CONSUMER ELECTRONICS TV VCR DVD/CD remote security HVAC lighting control access control lawn & garden irrigation PC & PERIPHERALS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL asset mgt process control environmental energy mgt PERSONAL HEALTH CARE BUILDING AUTOMATION security HVAC AMR lighting control access control mouse keyboard joystick patient monitoring fitness monitoring

56 Revolution in Computer, Communication and MEMS 0.5 oz, 2.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch 25 lb, 19.5 x 5.5 x 16 inch ~14 mW~ 64 W ~ $35~ $6K (today) 512 KB Flash160 KB Floppies 128 KB RAM KB RAM 4 MHz4.77 MHz MICAZ Mote (2005)Original IBM PC (1981)

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58 MoteIV Technology, Inc., US

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60 Crossbow Technology, Inc., USA UC Berkley, Smart Dust Crossbow MICA2DOT

61 Crossbow Technology, Inc., USA Available Sensor Boards  Light and Temperature  Acceleration/Vibration (2- Axis ADXL202 based)  Acoustic  Magnetometer  Weather Monitoring  GPS

62 Crossbow 的 Smart Dust  MICAz 模組,長寬各為 5.8 X 3.2 cm ( DOT 模組直徑為 2.5cm )  無線傳輸使用 315 、 433 、 868 、 900 、 916 MHz 等多段頻率  支援 和 ZigBee 通訊協定  採用 UC-Berkely 發展的公開程式碼 TinyOS  最大無線傳輸距離約 100m ,傳輸率 250 Kbps  具有 8 通道 10 bits A/D  3.3V 電源驅動, 2 顆 AA 電池間歇方式可運 作一年  可選配壓力、光照、溫濕度、加速計、 GPS 等感測器 $125 $105

63 Features of Intel ’ s Imote ARM* core SRAM FLASH BT radio Stackable connectors (top and bottom) 2.4 GHz antenna Multicolor status LED Optional external antenna connector Optional voltage regulator (bottom)

64 Imote 2 --Top View Basic I/O connector Dialog PMIC 36 mm 48 mm PXA273 LED Crystals

65 Imote 2 -- Bottom View 36 mm 48 mm Advanced I/O connector Advanced I/O connector Crystal Antenna Optional SMA connector Mini USB Connector CC2420

66 Bandwave Technology, Inc. Taiwan  Import   4 Sensors on a chip T: Temperature (dry bulb) (-40~120 o C) RH: Relative Humidity (0~99%) TSR: Total Solar Radiation PAR: Photosynthetically Active Radiation

67 Bandwave Technology, Inc., Taiwan 外接輸入介面 溫、濕度與光量 (TSR & PAR) 感測頭 使用 2 顆 3A 電池 USB 介面連接電腦

68 Mote feature comparison Feature ImoteMicazTelosMica2Imote 2 CPU SRAM [kB] /32,000 FLASH [kB] KB / 1024 KB ,000 RadioBT MHz15.4 (BT/802.11) Bandwidth [kb/s] (720/11,000) Power C/R/T [mA]15 / 24 / 248 / 20 / 181 / 20 / 188 / 10 / 2740/20/18 Power sleep [uA] Security HW4LFSR-128AES-128 NY OS supportTinyOS

69 Sensor Web NASA JPL , Sensor Web

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71 NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, USA

72 Pods at the Huntington Garden, CA

73 Pod deployment in Antarctica Pod deployment in Space Center

74 Pod deployment in Greenhouse

75 Sensor Web Deployment at a Recharge Basin Facility

76 Wireless LAN b/g WiFi 2.4 GHz 11 Mbits

77 Light Sensor PICNIC / Wireless LAN device CCD LED/Fan Humidity & Temperature sensors Field Server of Japan

78 Field Server 架構 1.Accurate Measurement Air-temperature Humidity 2.Sampling Gas (CO 2, NOx, SOx) Insects Microbes Virus Dusts 3.Cooling

79 Field Server of Japan  PICNIC card  DDA Type  FPAA Type  有較開放式的組成架構,系統性能可隨著市 場零組件功能進步而發展, FS 製作可以相當 經濟  容易結合 IPv4 與 web 介面,架設與使用容易  改變了傳統量測儀器之架構,前端只提供感 測器原始量測之數位訊號  開放式架構可彈性適用不同環境需求,在農 業有很大的應用發展潛能  體積相對較大  功能之發揮依賴後端各類型應用軟體之開發

80 Field Server Engine DDS-type PICNIC Ver.1.0 FPAA-type 24 bit 10 bit 24 bit Ver.2.0Ver.3.0

81 Field Server Engine-PICNIC PICNIC (Programmable Interface Controller with Network Interface Card)  10cm x 7cm  內含 10bits 解析度 A/D 轉換的單晶片微電腦 PIC16F877 , 4 點 0-5V 之間類比訊號輸入, 輸出電壓範圍符合的感測器模組可直接連結, 如溫度、濕度、日照、導電度、葉面濕度等  4 點的 5V 輸出、 4 點 5V 輸入  乙太網路控制晶片 RTL8019AS  RS-232 及 RJ-45 接頭,支援 TCP 、 UDP 等網 路傳輸協定,內可設定一組 IP ,並提供 WEB 網頁介面,因此接上網路即可使用  對於一般農業生產管理與環境量測大致足夠

82 Specification of DDS-Type 1.Web server 2.DDS (1 Hz – 70 MHz) 3.24bit-AD converter (8 ch) 4.10bit AD converter (8 ch) 5.10bit DA converter (1 ch) 6.Power photo MOS relay(2 ch) 7.Serial I/O (RS-232C) 8.DC-DC converter (in: 4-34 V, out: 5 V) DDS: Direct Digital Synthesizer

83 Measurement by DDS Type ElementPhysical parameter Humidity Rainfall Leaf wetness Soil moisture EC Water level Water stress Capacitance Impedance Capacitance DD S Material AD-Conv.

84 FPAA F ield P rogrammable A nalog A rray 20 OP-AMP Resistor Capacitor Cross-bar Switch Field Server Engine – FPAA 型 Multiplier Soil-moisture sensor EC sensor Plant moisture sensor Humidity sensor pH , Pressure , Acceleration Infrared-Visible LED/LD Photo sensor Microphone sensor Speaker emitter RF antenna

85 Inside of the Field Server

86 Real-time data Database Live Camera Monitoring results created by Agent System

87 Sample XML file and agent action XML configuration file get raw data exchange data zoom & snapshot Agent Program

88 Data Collecting Method PC-Cluster Data gathering agent ( Web crawler ) Internet ADSL CATV Mobile Global IP Private IP FSG Firewall Private network of FieldServers Provider VPN FSG: Field Server Gateway

89 Field Server of Japan Monitoring page Main page

90 Sensors

91 Sensors: T & RH from Sensirion AG The temperature sensor and the humidity sensor together form a single unit. This also enables an accurate and point- precise determination of the dew point, without incurring errors due to temperature gradients between the humidity and the temperature sensors. Through the unique linkage of these sensor elements with the signal amplifier unit, the analog-to-digital converter, the calibration data memory, as well as the digital, bus-ready interface, all on a surface area of a few square millimeters.

92 Sensors  Temperature Sensor: (  c  1  c) LM35DZ  Humidity: (0 – 100% RH  1%RH) HIH-3610  Pressure: ( KPa  1KPa) MPVX5010DP  Water level: by pressure gauge ( 0 – 10 m  1 cm)  Light: (0 – lux  10 lux) Photo Transistor  Wind Direction: ( 0 – 360   1  ) Variable Resistor  Wind Speed: ( m/s  0.1m/s) Counter  Rain Gauge: ( mm  0.1mm) Tapping

93 Sensors

94 Sensors: Rain Gauge/Drain Gauge

95 Sensors: soil related Air or Soil Temperature sensor

96 Sensors: Soil related  Easy to install  Easy to understand (centibar)  Measures small soil samples  Requires continuous maintenance Tensiometer 張力計

97 Soil moisture sensor  Volumetric water content  Fast responds  Robust & Reliable  Maintenance free  Measuring large soil volume  Can be operated in all crops

98 Soil moisture sensor  The Echo probe measures the dielectric constant of the soil in order to find its volumetric water content.  Since the dielectric constant of water is much higher than that of air or soil minerals, the dielectric constant of the soil is a sensitive measure of water content.  The ECHO probe has a very low power requirement and high resolution. This gives you the ability to make as many measurements as you want (even hourly) over a long period of time (like a growing season, for example), with minimal battery usage.

99 ECHO Probes: Models and Specifications ECHO probe model EC-20 (20cm length) ECHO probe model EC-10 (10cm length

100

101 ECH2O DataTrac (Graphing Software)

102 Dielectric Leaf wetness sensor  The Dielectric Leaf Wetness Sensor, like its name implies, measures surface wetness by measuring changes in the dielectric on the sensor surface. Designed to mimic the thermodynamic properties of a leaf in shape and dimensions. Specifications are in development by Decagon Device, Inc.

103 CO 2 Sensor


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