Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Prof. Muhammad Saeed I. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 2.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Prof. Muhammad Saeed I. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Muhammad Saeed I

2 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 2

3 "The number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months." Moor’s Law

4 END

5 Comparison Of CISC & RISC Technologies

6 Intel 4004 Year1971 Clock Speed740 KHz No. Of Transistors 2300 at 10  m MIPS0.07 Register Length4-bit Data Bus Length4-bit Address Memory640 bytes First single-chip microprocessor

7 Intel 8008 Year1972 Clock Speed800 KHz No. Of Transistors 3500 at 10  m MIPS0.05 Register Length8-bit Data Bus Length8-bit Address Memory16 kb

8 Intel 8086 Year1978 Clock Speed5MHz No. Of Transistors at 3  m MIPS0.33 Register Length16-bit Data Bus Length16-bit Address Memory1 MB

9 Intel 8088 Year1979 Clock Speed5MHz No. Of Transistors at 3  m MIPS0.33 Register Length16-bit Data Bus Length Ext8-bit Address Memory1 MB

10 Intel Year1982 Clock Speed6-25MHz No. Of Transistors at 1.5  m MIPS Register Length16-bit Data Bus Length 16-bit Addressable Memory16 MB

11 Year1985 Clock Speed16-33MHz No. Of Transistors at 1  m MIPS5-9.9 Register Length32-bit Data Bus Length 32-bit Addressable Memory4GB Intel 80386DX

12 Intel 80486DX Year1989 Clock Speed25-50MHz No. Of Transistors 1.2million at  m MIPS11.1 MIPS at 33 MHz Register Length32-bit Data Bus Length 32-bit Addressable Memory4GB Includes Math Coprocessor and Cache

13 Intel Pentium 1 Year1993 Clock Speed60-200MHz No. Of Transistors million at  m MIPS Register Length32-bit Data Bus Length 64-bit Addressable Memory4GB Includes data and Instruction Caches(8k)

14 Intel Pentium MMX Technology The MMX technology consists of three improvements over the non-MMX Pentium microprocessor:  57 new microprocessor instructions have been added that are designed to handle video, audio, and graphical data more efficiently.  A new process, Single Instruction Multiple Data ( SIMD ), makes it possible for one instruction to perform the same operation on multiple data items.  The memory cache on the microprocessor has increased to 32 thousand bytes, meaning fewer accesses to memory that is off the microprocessor.

15 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language Bit MMX and XMM Registers MMX Registers: MMX technology improves the performance of Intel processors when implementing advanced multimedia and communications applications. The eight 64-bit MMX registers support special instructions called SIMD (Single- Instruction, Multiple-Data). As the name implies, MMX instructions operate in parallel on the data values contained in MMX registers. XMM Registers: The x86 architecture also contains eight 128-bit registers called XMM registers. They are used by streaming SIMD extensions to the instruction set.

16 Intel Pentium II Year1997 Clock Speed450MHz No. Of Transistors 7.5million at  m MIPS Register Length32-bit Data Bus Length 64-bit Addressable Memory4GB Includes data and Instruction Caches(8k) 541 MIPS at 200 MHz

17 Intel Pentium III Year1999 Clock Speed600MHz No. Of Transistors 9.5million at  m MIPS2,054 MIPS at 600 MHz Register Length32-bit Data Bus Length 64-bit Addressable Memory64G B

18 Intel Pentium IV Year Clock Speed1.3GHz No. Of Transistors55 million at 13 nm MIPS9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz Register Length32-bit Data Bus Length 64-bit Addressable Memory64G B

19 Intel Pentium D 840 Year2005 Clock Speed2.8GHz No. Of Transistors230 million at 0.09 μm MIPS Register Length64-bit Data Bus Length 64-bit Addressable Memory64 GB Cores (800 and 900 series) 2 Series( )

20 Intel i7 Year 2008 Clock Speed3.2 GHz No. Of Transistors731,000, nm-14nm MIPS 298,190 MIPS at 3.0 GHz Register Length 64-bit Data Bus Length 64-bit Addressable Memory 64GB

21 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 21 Intel Chipset Block Diagram

22 Block Diagram of a Microcomputer 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 22

23 Simplified CPU Block Diagram 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 23

24 32-Bit General Purpose Registers 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 24

25 General Purpose Registers 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 25

26 Floating Point Unit Registers 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 26

27 32 bit EFlags Register

28 32-bit EFlags Register Explained-I 0. CF : Carry Flag. Set if the last arithmetic operation carried (addition) or borrowed (subtraction) a bit beyond the size of the register. This is then checked when the operation is followed with an add-with-carry or subtract-with-borrow to deal with values too large for just one register to contain. 2. PF : Parity Flag. Set if the number of set bits in the least significant byte is a multiple of AF : Adjust Flag. (Auxiliary Carry Flag)Carry of Binary Code Decimal (BCD) numbers arithmetic operations. 6. ZF : Zero Flag. Set if the result of an operation is Zero (0). 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 28

29 32-bit EFlags Register Explained-II 7. SF : Sign Flag. Set if the result of an operation is negative. 8. TF : Trap Flag. Set if step by step debugging. 9. IF : Interruption Flag. Set if interrupts are enabled. 10. DF : Direction Flag. Stream direction. If set, string operations will decrement their pointer rather than incrementing it, reading memory backwards. 11. OF : Overflow Flag. Set if signed arithmetic operations result in a value too large for the register to contain IOPL : I/O Privilege Level field (2 bits). I/O Privilege Level of the current process. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 29

30 32-bit EFlags Register Explained-III 14. NT : Nested Task flag. Controls chaining of interrupts. Set if the current process is linked to the next process. 16. RF : Resume Flag. Response to debug exceptions. 17. VM : Virtual-8086 Mode. Set if in 8086 compatibility mode. 18. AC : Alignment Check. Set if alignment checking of memory references is done. 19. VIF : Virtual Interrupt Flag. Virtual image of IF. 20. VIP : Virtual Interrupt Pending flag. Set if an interrupt is pending. 21. ID : Identification Flag. Support for CPUID instruction if can be set. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 30

31 64-bit RFlags Register Higher 32 bits are reserved, lower 32 bits are the same as 32-Bit EFlags Register. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 31

32 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 32  It is backward-compatible with the x86 instruction set.  Addresses are 64 bits long, allowing for a virtual address space of size 264 bytes. In current chip implementations, only the lowest 48 bits are used.  It can use 64-bit general-purpose registers, allowing instructions to have 64-bit integer operands.  It uses eight more general-purpose registers than the x86.  It uses a 48-bit physical address space, which supports up to 256 terabytes of RAM. Essential Features Of 64-Bit Processor

33 General Purpose Registers Bits Sixteen 128-bit XMM registers

34 Memory - I ROM is permanently burned into a chip and cannot be erased. EPROM can be erased slowly with ultraviolet light and reprogrammed. DRAM, commonly known as main memory, is where programs and data are kept when a program is running. It is inexpensive, but must be refreshed every millisecond to avoid losing its contents. Some systems use ECC (error checking and correcting) memory. SRAM is used primarily for expensive, high-speed cache memory. It does not have to be refreshed. CPU cache memory is comprised of SRAM. VRAM holds video data. It is dual ported, allowing one port to continuously refresh the display while another port writes data to the display. CMOS RAM on the system motherboard stores system setup information. It is refreshed by a battery, so its contents are retained when the computer’s power is off. VOLATILE and DYNAMIC 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 34

35 Memory - II (Cache Memory-I) Caches function as read and write caches when they are involved in the transfer of data from a faster device to a slower device. It allows you send information and then undertake a new task while it translates the data.  L1 cache, which stands for Level 1 cache, primary cache, is a type of small and fast memory that is built into the central processing unit.  L2 cache, L2, or Level 2, cache is used to store recently accessed information. Also known as secondary cache, it is designed to reduce the time needed to access data in cases where data has already been accessed previously. It is slower than L1. It may or may not be in the CPU.  L3 cache, or Level 3, cache is a memory cache that is built into the motherboard. It is used to feed the L2 cache, and is typically faster than the system’s main memory, but still slower than the L2 cache. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 35

36 Memory - II (Cache Memory-II) 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 36

37 Core 1 L1 Core 2 L1 Core 3 L1 Core 4 L1 L 2 Cache Core 1 L1 Core 2 L1 Core 3 L1 Core 4 L1 L 2 A quad-core chip with shared L2 Cache A quad-core chip with separate L2 Cache Memory - II (Cache Memory-III) 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 37

38 Microprocessor Registers L1 Cache L2 Cache Memory Disk, Tape, etc Memory Bus I/O Bus Faster Bigger Memory - II (Cache Memory-IV) 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 38

39 Processor Modes  Real Mode: A processor running in real mode acts like It accesses memory with the same restrictions of the original 8088: a limit of 1 MB of addressable RAM, and it doesn't take advantage of the full 32-bit processing of modern CPUs. All processors have this real mode available.  Protected Mode: Full access to all of the system's memory. Ability to multitask. Support for virtual memory. 32-bit processing  Virtual Real Mode: It emulates real mode from within protected mode, allowing DOS programs to run. A protected mode operating system such as Windows can in fact create multiple virtual real mode machines, each of which appear to the software running them as if they are the only software running on the machine. Each virtual machine gets its own 1 MB address space, an image of the real hardware BIOS routines, everything. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 39

40 Holding Buffer Execute Unit Pipelining and Scalability 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 40

41 Pipelining and Scalability 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 41

42 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 42  Device port.  Serial Port.  Parallel Port  USB (Universal Serial Bus) The computer acts as the host. Up to 127 devices can connect to the host, either directly or by way of USB hubs. Individual USB cables can run as long as 5 meters; with hubs, devices can be up to 30 meters. With USB 2.0,the bus has a maximum data rate of 480 megabits per second. With USB 3.0, data rate is 5 gbits/sec. While USB 2.0 can only send data in one direction at a time, USB 3.0 can transmit data in both directions simultaneously. USBs of >1 TB capacity are available. Ports

43 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 43  A bus is a collection of traces  Traces are thin electrical connections that transport information between hardware devices  A port is a bus that connects exactly two devices  An I/O channel is a bus shared by several devices to perform I/O operations Handle I/O independently of the system’s main processors BUS

44 8088 Block Diagram 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 44

45 Instruction Execution Cycle  Fetch the next operation Place it in the queue Update the program counter  Decode the Instruction Perform address translation Fetch Operands from memory  Execute the Instruction Perform the required calculation Store results in memory or registers Set status flags attached to the CPU 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 45

46 Memory Address  Segment Address 0EBD  Offset Address 00AC  Logical Address Segment:Offset 0EBD:00AC  Physical Address segment x 16 + offset 0EBD x 10h + 00AC 0EBD0 + 00AC = 0EC7C  Flat Address 32-Bit: FF0084C5 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 46

47 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 47 Global Descriptor Table (GDT) A single GDT is created when the operating system switches the processor into protected mode during boot up. Its base address is held in the GDTR (global descriptor table register). The table contains entries (called segment descriptors) that point to segments. The operating system has the option of storing the segments used by all programs in the GDT. Local Descriptor Tables (LDT) In a multitasking operating system, each task or program is usually assigned its own table of segment descriptors, called an LDT. The LDTR register contains the address of the program’s LDT. Each segment descriptor contains the base address of a segment within the linear address space. This segment is usually distinct from all other segments Memory Address

48 Three different logical addresses are shown, each selecting a different entry in the LDT. In this figure we assume that paging is disabled, so the linear address space is also the physical address space. Computer Architecture & Assembly Language481/27/2015

49 Block Diagram Of Pentium 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 49

50 END


Download ppt "Prof. Muhammad Saeed I. 1/27/2015 Computer Architecture & Assembly Language 2."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google