Presentation on theme: "Latin II – Review Time!!! Remember that in Latin, nouns decline. The ending of a Latin noun tells you the number and case of a noun. Nouns also have gender."— Presentation transcript:
Latin II – Review Time!!! Remember that in Latin, nouns decline. The ending of a Latin noun tells you the number and case of a noun. Nouns also have gender – a noun which is masculine will always be masculine, and so on. Finally, nouns belong to a declension. Nouns of the same declension will share the same grammatical endings. Noun Cases CaseMost Common Use NominativeSubjects, predicate nominatives GenitivePossession DativeIndirect objects AccusativeDirect objects AblativeObjects of (some) prepositions
The First Declension Nouns of the first declension are generally feminine in gender. The exceptions are nouns such as nauta, agricola, and poeta which describe occupations which would generally be held by men. The characteristic vowel of the first declension is -a-, and a first declension noun can be recognized by its genitive singular ending in -ae. First declension nouns share these endings: epistulaepistulae epistulārum epistulaeepistulīs epistulamepistulās epistulāepistulīs
The Second Declension Most second declension nouns are masculine in gender. They generally end in -us, but there are quite a few -er endings as well. The only way to be sure that a noun is second declension is to look for the -ī ending in the genitive singular. Recall that in a very few -er nouns (e.g. puer) the -e- remains in all the forms. annusannī annōrum annōannīs annumannōs annōannīs liberlibrī librōrum librōlibrīs librumlibrōs librōlibrīs bellumbella bellībellōrum bellōbellīs bellumbella bellōbellīs For neuters, recall that A) the nominative and accusative must be the same, and B) the nom/acc plural ending is always -a.
The Third Declension The third declension is where we have to be careful with our rules. Remember especially that you decline a noun (and identify the declension) not by the nominative form, but by the genitive. Third declension nouns may have different nominatives, but they all have a genitive ending in -is. lux, lucis, f. tempus, temporis, n. luxlucēs lucislucum lucīlucibus lucemlucēs lucelucibus tempustempora temporistemporum temporītemporibus tempustempora temporetemporibus
Adjectives: Like nouns, except of course for the differences. Adjectives decline like nouns do. There are, however, two major differences. First, adjectives must agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. They get these three from the noun that they modify; they can change genders while nouns cannot. Second, adjectives only belong to two declensions. The first, the 1 st /2 nd adjectives, switch between the two declensions depending on gender; they use the 1 st for feminines and the 2 nd for masculines. 3 rd declension adjectives are always 3 rd. SingularPlural levislevēs levislevium levīlevibus levemlevēs levīlevibus SingularPlural levelevia levislevium levīlevibus levelevia levīlevibus Masc/FeminineNeuter