Presentation on theme: "Slide no: 1 ST3520 L2 MT Hardware - 1: Components of a Computer."— Presentation transcript:
Slide no: 1 ST3520 L2 MT Hardware - 1: Components of a Computer
Slide no: 2 ST3520 L2 MT Objectives The objectives of this session (three lectures) are to: r define the nature of data and information r describe how computers represent data r define the principal physical components of a computer system. r describe in broad terms how each component works. r describe the operating/performance characteristics of each component. r show how these components inter-relate. r look at trends in current technology r give you a sufficient understanding of the technology to underpin your understanding of Information Systems
Slide no: 3 ST3520 L2 MT PC Advertisement THE STUDENT SPECIAL - Dell Inspiron 530 r Intel® Core™ 2 Duo E4400 Processor (2.0GHz,800MHz,2MB cache) r 1.0 GB 533Mhz RAM (2x512) r 250GB Serial ATA Hard Drive r 19” Flat Panel Monitor (19.0” v.i.s) r 256MB nVidia™ GeForce 8600GT graphics card r 16x DVD/ +/- RW Combo Drive r SoundBlaster Compatible On-Board Sound r Dell Stereo Speakers r 1GB USB Memory Key r Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2 r Microsoft Works 7.0
Slide no: 4 ST3520 L2 MT What is Data? r Definitions: î A series of non-random symbols, number, values or words. î A series of facts obtained by observation or research î A collection of non-random facts î The record of an event or fact r Examples: î today’s date; î measurements taken on a production line; î records of business transactions.
Slide no: 5 ST3520 L2 MT What is Information? r Definitions: î Data that has been processed so that they are meaningful. î Data that has been processed for a purpose. î Data that has been interpreted and understood by the recipient. r Examples: î A bank statement; î A sales forecast; î A telephone directory. r Information Warfare
Slide no: 6 ST3520 L2 MT Components of a PC Hardware System You put something in The computer does something to it You get something out The computer may store it for a while InputProcessingOutput Storage DATAINFORMATION
Slide no: 7 ST3520 L2 MT Word Count on a Word Document The computer does something to it The computer may store it for a while Word Document + Program Instructions Counting Number of Words Pop-up window with Word Count Store Document Running Total Program Instructions DATA INFORMATION
Slide no: 8 ST3520 L2 MT Components of a PC Hardware System Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Central Processing Unit (CPU) Output Devices Printers Video display Primary Storage Communication Devices Secondary Storage Magnetic disk Optical disk Buses
Slide no: 9 ST3520 L2 MT How Computers Represent Data r Bit r Byte r Size is normally expressed in Bytes r Standard measures are: î 1,024 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB) (1,024 = 2 x2 x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x2 x 2 x2) î 1,024 KB = 1 Megabyte (MB) î 1,024 MB = 1 Gigabyte (GB) î 1,024 GB = 1 Terabyte (TB) î 1,024 TB = 1 Petabyte (PB) î 1,024 PB = 1 Exabyte (EB) î 1 EB is approximately 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes. r Today PC memory is measured in Megabytes, PC disk in Gigabytes and mainframe disks in Terabytes.
Slide no: 11 ST3520 L2 MT However... r When talking of: î Processors (CPU) and î Communications use bit. r A 56.8 Kbps modem means 56,800 bits per second = KB r Processors are often described as 8, 16, 32 or 64 bit.
Slide no: 12 ST3520 L2 MT The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Input Devices Secondary Storage Output Devices Control Unit Primary Storage ALU Registers The CPU Instruction Set
Slide no: 13 ST3520 L2 MT r Core components î Control Unit î Arithmetic-Logic Unit î Registers î Instruction Set î Clock î Primary Storage r Optional î Cache The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Slide no: 14 ST3520 L2 MT The CPU (continued) r Control Unit î Access program instructions î Decode (interpret) instructions î Control flow of data throughout system î Data flows through paths called buses r Arithmetic-Logic Unit î Perform computations on data î Perform comparisons on data r Registers î High speed storage areas î Hold data and instructions
Slide no: 15 ST3520 L2 MT The CPU (continued) r Instruction Set î Pre-programmed functions r Clock î Sequences events r Primary Storage (Main Memory) î Stores instructions from programs î Stores data to be processed r Cache Memory (optional) r Overheats – Heat syncHeat sync î Iitac Iitac
Slide no: 16 ST3520 L2 MT Speed of a Chip 1. Cycle Speed r Clock speed – beat frequency of the clock (in MHz) determines how many times per second the processor performs operations. r Intel® Core™ 2 Duo E4400 Processor (2.0GHz,800MHz,2MB cache) – 2 billion cycles per second 2. Word Length r No. of bits that can be processed at any one time. r Pentium D processes 64 bits of data in one machine cycle.
Slide no: 17 ST3520 L2 MT Speed of a Chip 3. Data Bus Width r The physical paths down which the data and instructions travel. r The wider the bus the more data can be moved – faster! r Bus bandwidth: The product of the width of its bus (in bits) times the frequency at which the bus transfers data (MHz). Bus bandwidth 3. Line width r Distance between transistors (the smaller this is the more transistors can fit on the chip)
Slide no: 18 ST3520 L2 MT The Microprocessor Silicon on a ceramic base Contains the basic processing functions The Intel Pentium D is one example It is the latest generation of a series that started with 8086 c. 1978. Approximately 100 pins to link to remainder of computer Uses 64 bit registers Intel Compatibles Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Cyrix Corporation
Slide no: 19 ST3520 L2 MT Examples of Microprocessors NameManufacturerWord lengthData Bus Width Used In Pentium 4Intel3264PCs Pentium DIntel64 PCs AthlonAMD64 PCs Pentium XeonIntel64 PCs UltraSPARC IVSun Microsystems64 Workstations
Slide no: 20 ST3520 L2 MT Getting More Performance r Instruction sets î Complex Instruction Set Computer or CISC. u Intel x86, Pentium î Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) u Power PC î Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) u Intel Itanium î Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing u Intel Pentium 4
Slide no: 21 ST3520 L2 MT Multiple Processor Machines TASK 1 RESULT TASK 2 RESULT Program CPU Program CPU Program CPU TASK 2 CPU TASK 3 CPU TASK 1 RESULT SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL MASSIVE PARALLEL COMPUTERS CAN HAVE THOUSANDS OF CPUs TO ATTACK LARGE COMPUTING PROBLEMS
Slide no: 22 ST3520 L2 MT Other Chips CPUs alone do not run a working computer Other chips are needed. Some contain startup information, instructions Specialised chips include: Video memory Graphics processing Encryption Language compilers Floating point arithmetic Standard chips are found on the motherboard Specialised chips are often on daughterboards
Slide no: 25 ST3520 L2 MT PC Advertisement THE STUDENT SPECIAL - Dell Inspiron 530 r Intel® Core™ 2 Duo E4400 Processor (2.0GHz,800MHz,2MB cache) r 1.0 GB 533Mhz RAM (2x512) r 250GB Serial ATA Hard Drive r 19” Flat Panel Monitor (19.0” v.i.s) r 256MB nVidia™ GeForce 8600GT graphics card r 16x DVD/ +/- RW Combo Drive r SoundBlaster Compatible On-Board Sound r Dell Stereo Speakers r 1GB USB Memory Key r Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2 r Microsoft Works 7.0
Slide no: 26 ST3520 L2 MT Primary Storage r Stores data and program statements for the CPU î Data that have been input before being transferred to the ALU. î Data and results during intermediate stages of processing. î Data after processing until being transferred to an output device. î Program statements/instructions received from input devices and secondary storage.
Slide no: 27 ST3520 L2 MT RAM (random access memory) r Where the CPU stores the instructions and data it is processing. î Size (1.0GB for multimedia) î Speed î Address î Memory is an array of silicon based binary switches î Volatile î Virtual memory
Slide no: 28 ST3520 L2 MT Cache Memory r Temporary storage for frequently used blocks of programmes. î High speed. î Primary (Level 1 cache) – located in the processor. î Secondary (Level 2 cache) – located on the motherboard.
Slide no: 29 ST3520 L2 MT ROM (read only memory) r Portion of Primary Storage that cannot be changed or erased. î Nonvolatile î Booting up u BIOS u POST
Slide no: 31 ST3520 L2 MT PC Advertisement THE STUDENT SPECIAL - Dell Inspiron 530 r Intel® Core™ 2 Duo E4400 Processor (2.0GHz,800MHz,2MB cache) r 1.0 GB 533Mhz RAM (2x512) r 250GB Serial ATA Hard Drive r 19” Flat Panel Monitor (19.0” v.i.s) r 256MB nVidia™ GeForce 8600GT graphics card r 16x DVD/ +/- RW Combo Drive r SoundBlaster Compatible On-Board Sound r Dell Stereo Speakers r 1GB USB Memory Key r Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2 r Microsoft Works 7.0
Slide no: 32 ST3520 L2 MT TO DO!! What is Grid Computing, how does it work, where is it used?
Slide no: 33 ST3520 L2 MT Summary of Key Points r Computers comprise input, output, storage and processing devices. r Computers are made up of many components of which the most important is the Central Processing Unit. r Processor performance depends on: î Register size; î Clock speed; î Bus size; î Line width. r Currently processors are mostly 64 bit. r There is a steady trend toward multiprocessing machines.