Presentation on theme: "Early on in the 1930s, FDR and America tried to turn their backs on growing problems in the rest of the world FDR only wanted to fight against the Depression."— Presentation transcript:
Early on in the 1930s, FDR and America tried to turn their backs on growing problems in the rest of the world FDR only wanted to fight against the Depression BUT, as war seemed on the horizon in Europe— FDR saw US couldn’t ignore what was happening!!!
LONDON ECONOMIC CONFERENCE One of the first global attempts to control the Depression was the LONDON ECONOMIC CONFERENCE in 1933 FDR at first committed the US to go, then backed out at the last minute Why? Didn’t want his hands tied by international pressures Showed we were even isolationist on the economy
FDR also proposed for the Philippines to be given their independence in 1946 T YDINGS -M C D UFFIE A CT The T YDINGS -M C D UFFIE A CT provided for this to occur This move made Japan feel the US was no longer interested in Asia (uh oh!!!)
In 1933, FDR also formally recognized the Soviet Union as a nation Motivated by wanting trade with Soviet Russia Also motivated by having the Soviets as a protection against German and Japanese power
FDR also began better relations with Latin America GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY Policy usually called the “ GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY ”
Adolf Hitler was clearly the most dangerous dictator of the bunch Used the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles to gain German acceptance Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations and began rearming (illegal) R OME - B ERLIN A XIS In 1936, signed an alliance with Italy called the R OME - B ERLIN A XIS
Japan was also increasingly becoming a major problem Had withdrawn from the Naval Reduction agreements Quit the League of Nations T RIPARTITE P ACT Joined with Germany and Italy in the T RIPARTITE P ACT (that can’t be good news!!!)
Things appeared to be worse when Mussolini and Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 League of Nations basically did NOTHING Americans, after the results of WWI, retreated back into isolationism
As events began to unfold in Europe, the US wanted to remain “neutral” and isolated!!!!!! Why???? The Nye Committee made it appear that WWI had been brought about by arms dealers In response to public pressure, the Congress passed the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, & 1937 These were attempting to keep the events that drew the US into WWI from happening again!!!!!
S PANISH C IVIL W AR American’s really became worried when war broke out in Spain in the S PANISH C IVIL W AR G ENERAL F RANCISCO F RANCO Spanish rebels led by G ENERAL F RANCISCO F RANCO Franco aided by Hitler and Mussolini
QUARANTINE SPEECH In response to much of what was going on in Europe and Asia, FDR delivered his famous QUARANTINE SPEECH Wanted to seal off the aggressor nations by economic embargo’s
Adolf Hitler continued to grow bolder and bolder across Europe!! In 1936, he move in and took the RHINELAND which had been taken by the Treaty of Versailles (France and GB do nothing) March 1938, Hitler takes over German speaking Austria without a shot! SUDETENLAND Then he begins making demands for the German occupied SUDETENLAND Hitler claims he just wants to put German’s back into Germany and wanted “lebensraum” or “living space” for Germans
In response their great fears of Hitler, the European powers and FDR meet at the MUNICH CONFERENCE in September 1938 The word to remember is APPEASEMENT—they gave into Hitler’s demands in hopes he would stop!!!!! (He promised too, so we can trust him, right?) They gave him the Sudetenland without asking Czechoslovakia NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN, British minister, becomes associated with appeasement!!!! (wimp) Six months later, Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia (really, he lied? Your joking?)
A major world-wide shock came in 1939 when Soviet leader Stalin announced they had signed a nonaggression treaty with Germany!!!!! HITLER-STALIN PACT Called the HITLER-STALIN PACT This would allow Hitler to focus his army on the Western front, not be divided up like in WWI Stalin and Hitler also had secretly made a deal to take Poland and would divide it up!
World War II officially began on September 1, 1939 with the German invasion of Poland Britain and France honored their agreements with Poland and declared war too Americans wanted to stay neutral, but many realized the US would have to help
NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1939 In order to assist the British, FDR managed to get the NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1939 passed “CASH & CARRY” Allowed Europe to buy American war goods, but only on a “CASH & CARRY” basis
After the fall of Poland, there was a period of months where Hitler did nothing Often times referred to as the “Phony War” The quiet ended when Hitler ran over Denmark and Norway, then went for the Netherlands and Belgium then destroyed France
While America may be neutral, FDR saw the need to prepare for war in case Called for building huge air fleets and a two-ocean navy CONSCRIPTION LAW CONSCRIPTION LAW —America’s first peacetime draft!!!!!
Once Hitler had France under control, Great Britain was next on the list! DUNKIRK British forces had barely escaped destruction in European continent at DUNKIRK BATTLE OF BRITAIN Hitler launched air attacks on GB known as the BATTLE OF BRITAIN Britain was in critical condition and needed destroyers DESTROYER DEAL US made the DESTROYER DEAL in 1940 which gave Britain 50 old destroyers for lease rights to English bases
"What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin, upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization, upon it depends our own British life and the long continuity of our institution and our Empire." Britain WINSTON CHURCHILL JUNE 18 1940 FROM HIS "FINEST HOUR" SPEECH
The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this Island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. Britain WINSTON CHURCHILL JUNE 18 1940 FROM HIS "FINEST HOUR" SPEECH
But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Britain WINSTON CHURCHILL JUNE 18 1940 FROM HIS "FINEST HOUR" SPEECH
Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, "This was their finest hour." Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, "This was their finest hour." Britain WINSTON CHURCHILL JUNE 18 1940 FROM HIS "FINEST HOUR" SPEECH
S FDR related it to giving your neighbor a garden hose if his house was on fire Idea of “ Send guns, not Sons ” A RSENAL OF D EMOCRACY America was becoming the “ A RSENAL OF D EMOCRACY ” Lend-Lease Bill really meant the US was no longer neutral! As Britain continued to be destroyed, FDR moved towards more direct assistance in his famous Lend-Lease Bill.
In the middle of all this mess was the presidential election of 1940. FDR did the unthinkable and ran for a third term ….why? FDR won and the two-term tradition was broken
In June of 1941, Hitler made the ultimate mistake of the war when he invaded the Soviet Union! Both had never really planned to assist each other (can you trust two mad-men?)
As war continued to rage, a secret meeting with held with British PM Winston Churchill and FDR. This secret meeting known as the A TLANTIC C ONFERENCE They issue the A TLANTIC C HARTER — goals for the world when/if they win Even mentioned something similar to the League of Nations (hmmm, United Nations sounds better, right?)
Because the Germans were attacking US goods in the Lend-Lease program,FDR decided to allow American ships to escort Lend-Lease shipments Guess What? American ships were “accidentally” hit by Germans USS Greer, USS Kearney, USS Rueben James all hit
On December 7 th, 1941, the Japanese surprise attacked a US military station at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii US had embargoed some products from Japan including oil Japanese needed oil and felt their only hope was a sudden and devastating blow on the US in the Pacific US had broken Japanese codes, but didn’t know where they would attack Japanese treachery?????? (Let me explain it to you) War was declared on Japan—soon Germany will make another mistake and declare war on the United States!!!! (woops)