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Modernism Impressionism and Post-Impressionism Expressionism.

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2 Modernism Impressionism and Post-Impressionism Expressionism

3 Modernism Optimism Optimism Progress for humanity Progress for humanity Novelty Novelty Uncertainty and rebellion Uncertainty and rebellion Questioned Western ethics, religion, and aesthetics Questioned Western ethics, religion, and aesthetics

4 Aesthetic Threads of the 19 th century: Romanticism Post Romanticism/Verismo Expressionism Impressionism Late Romanticism

5 Modernism in Art and Music Replace Renaissance ideals Replace Renaissance ideals Representational to nonrepresentational (abstract) Representational to nonrepresentational (abstract) Novelty  Pluralism in the arts Novelty  Pluralism in the arts

6 Impressionism in Art: 1870s and 1880s Claude Monet ( ) Claude Monet ( ) Impression: Sunrise, 1872 Impression: Sunrise, 1872 “Impressionism” in 1874 “Impressionism” in 1874 Art that is intended to capture the immediate, sensual impression of a moments glance rather than produce details Art that is intended to capture the immediate, sensual impression of a moments glance rather than produce details Art for art’s sake Art for art’s sake Sensuous rather than emotional or rational Sensuous rather than emotional or rational

7 Rouen Cathedral: 1894 Changes of light in different atmospheric conditions. Ex.: Monet’s painting of Rouen Cathedral

8 Impressionism and the influence of photography: “Slice of Life” Pierre-Auguste Renoir The Pont-Neuf (1872)

9 Pierre-Auguste Renoir Moulin de la Galette (1876)

10 Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere ( )

11 Impressionism in Music

12 Music should humbly seek to give pleasure….It is essential that beauty be sensual, that it give us immediate enjoyment, that it impose itself or insinuate itself into us without our making any effort to grasp it.

13 Impressionism in Music Sensuous rather than emotional or rational Sensuous rather than emotional or rational How to make music that does not engage the intellect or emotions How to make music that does not engage the intellect or emotions Tone color Tone color Vague harmony Vague harmony Meandering rhythm or hypnotic rhythm Meandering rhythm or hypnotic rhythm Claude Debussy ( )

14 Debussy’s “Nuages” (Clouds)

15 Postimpressionism 1880s-1900 diverse individuals, with very diverse styles, who came after Impressionism Georges Seurat Paul Cezanne Paul Gauguin Vincent van Gogh greater psychological and emotional involvement with their subject matter

16 Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, pointillism

17 Van Gogh, Self- Portrait with a Gray Hat, self-portraits in the last four years of his brief 37-year life. Note the thick tactile effect of the paint, lending intensity to the portrait.

18 Van Gogh, Self- Portrait interested in observing his own psycho- logical states of being.

19 Van Gogh, The Night Café Van Gogh wrote to Theo, "the picture is one of the ugliest I have done. It is the equivalent, though different, of The Potato Eaters. I have tried to express the terrible passions of humanity by means of red and green." "I have tried to express the idea that the cafe' is a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad or commit a crime. So I have tried to express, as it were, the powers of darkness in a low public house... in an atmosphere like a devil's furnace, of pale sulphur."

20 Van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889

21 Van Gogh, Portrait of Dr. Gachet, 1890 Vincent was moved to Auvers (1890) to be treated by Dr. Gachet, whom Vincent painted “with the heart- broken expression of our time” Vincent sold only one painting during his entire lifetime This one sold for $82.5 million in the spring of 1990

22 Van Gogh, Irises This painting of Irises in the garden of the Saint-Remy asylum sold for $53.9 million in 1987.

23 Expressionism An attack on the senses An attack on the senses Extreme emotional intensity- where emotion gives way to psychosis Extreme emotional intensity- where emotion gives way to psychosis Edvard Munch, The Scream

24 Why have ugly art? art should purvey beauty and pleasure? art should purvey beauty and pleasure? Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud Viewed frustration and unhappiness as inherent in the human mind Viewed frustration and unhappiness as inherent in the human mind Classic order and control, romantic emotional expression, and the sensual appeal of impressionism amount to nothing but repression of conflict and tension Classic order and control, romantic emotional expression, and the sensual appeal of impressionism amount to nothing but repression of conflict and tension The new aesthetic: art that vents conflict and tension The new aesthetic: art that vents conflict and tension

25 Expressionism Fauvism - Paris (1905) Die Brücke (“The Bridge”) - Dresden, Germany (1905) Der Blaue Reiter (“The Blue Rider”) Munich, Germany (1911)

26 Fauvism (Wild Beastism) Violent break from tradition “the wild beasts” Henri Matisse

27 Henri Matisse, The Dance

28 Matisse, Le bonheur de vivre or The Joy of Life, (1906)

29 Die Brücke (“The Bridge”) ( ) Founded in Dresden, Germany by painters wanting to create a “bridge” to all artists of the Expressionist persuasion

30 Der Blaue Reiter (“The Blue Rider”) Movement founded in Munich, Germany, 1911 Wasily Kandinsky, Der Blaue Reiter, 1911

31 Kandinsky, Improvisa- tion No. 30: On a Warlike Theme (1913)

32 Kandinsky, Panel for Edwin R. Campbell No. 3, (1914)

33 Expressionism in Music Second Vienna School Second Vienna School Arnold Schoenberg ( ) Arnold Schoenberg ( ) Alban Berg ( ) Alban Berg ( ) Wozzeck (1922)- an opera by Berg Wozzeck (1922)- an opera by Berg Atonality (the absence of tonality) = music that expresses emotional instability Atonality (the absence of tonality) = music that expresses emotional instability Pierrot lunaire (1912) Pierrot lunaire (1912) Sprechstimme (speech-voice) Sprechstimme (speech-voice)

34 …a work of art can produce no greater effect than when it transmits the emotions which raged in the creator to the listener, in such a way they also rage and storm in him.

35 “Decapitation” from Pierrot lunaire The moon, a polished scimitar Set on a black silken cushion, Ghostly vast, menaces downwards Through pain’s dark night. Pierrot wanders about, restless, And stares on high in death-agony At the moon, a polished scimitar Set on a black silken cushion. His knees knock together under him; Swooning, he collapses abruptly. He fancies: let it whistle punishingly Already down on his guilty neck, The moon, the polished scimitar. 47

36 “Night” from Pierrot lunaire Gloomy, black moths Killed the radiant sun. A sealed book of magic, The horizon rests, taciturn. From the vapor of forgotten depths Rises a fragrance, killing memory! Gloomy, black moths Killed the radiant sun. And from heaven earthwards They sing with ponderous oscillations- Invisible monsters— Down to the hearts of men… Gloomy, black moths. 45

37 Wozzeck (1922) Alban Berg Expressionist opera Expressionist opera Plot: psychosis of Wozzeck Plot: psychosis of Wozzeck Use of atonality and sprechstimme Use of atonality and sprechstimme

38 Cubism ( ) Pablo Picasso and George Braque Depict objects from multiple viewpoints A new approach to perspective

39 Show objects in two dimensional form but from many different angles at the same time -- “multiangular perspective.” Squashed Down

40 Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907)

41 Braque, Woman with a Guitar

42 Picasso, Girl with Mandolin

43 Picasso, Man with a Violin, 1911

44 Picasso, Guernica (1937) Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War 1937 Guernica bombing 1937 Guernica bombing Guernica is a protest against the war Guernica is a protest against the war

45 Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937, 11’ 5 1 / 2 ” x 25’5 3 / 4 ”

46 Primitivism Used styles that imitated presumably primitive art in an attempt to approach the expression of less refined and therefore more genuine feelings. Used styles that imitated presumably primitive art in an attempt to approach the expression of less refined and therefore more genuine feelings. Gaugin, Mahana No Atua or Day of God (1894)

47 Igor Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring (1913)

48 The Rite of Spring: Pictures of Pagan Russia Ballets Russes Ballets Russes (Firebird, Petrushka, (Firebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring) Sergey Diaghilev Sergey Diaghilev Igor Stravinsky Igor Stravinsky Vaslav Nijinsky Vaslav Nijinsky

49 How did Stravinsky recreate the effect of primitive Russian music? Percussive Percussive Dissonant (often atonal) Dissonant (often atonal) Fragments of folk-like melodies Fragments of folk-like melodies

50 “My one desire was to flee that room and find a quiet corner in which to rest my aching head.” “I detested it; I still detest it.” Pierre Monteux, conductor at the premiere of the Rite of Spring

51 Dada 1916 in Zürich Mad art for a world gone mad An “anti-art” movement A protest against rationalist thought that they believed was to blame for war in Europe (and other evils of society) Fountain, 1917 Marcel Duchamp

52 Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle (1913) “found art”

53 Modern Architecture New materials Iron Steel Frames Louis Henry Sullivan, Guaranty Building (1895) Buffalo New York

54 Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House (1909) Chicago

55 Fallingwater ( ), Frank Lloyd Wright Reinforced Concrete

56 Bauhaus and the International style Walter Gropius – Stark simplicity Geometric austerity Steel, concrete, sheet glass Bauhaus Building, Dessau, Germany 1926

57 Villa Savoye ( ), Le Corbusier, International Style

58 1928 Ford model A

59 Nationalism and Neoclassicism in Music Two movements that remained connected to the audience  Nationalism  Use of folk melodies, rhythms or harmonies identified with a particular country or region  Can also use folklore as the basis for operatic or programmatic works  Neoclassicism  A return to classical principles, with emphasis on clarity, order, balance and clear form.  A reaction against the confusion, dissonance and experimental nature of Expressionism

60 Nationalism Aaron Copland ( ) used American hymns, folk songs, children songs, cowboy songs, etc. Composed music for film “Appalachian Spring” and “Fanfare for the Common Man” two famous works Bela Bartok ( )  Hungarian Composer  Ethnomusicologist  Adapted folk melodies for use in his compositions, while still retaining a modern aesthetic

61 Sergei Prokofiev “Symphony #1, “Classical” Samuel Barber, “Adagio for Strings” Neoclassicists

62 Surrealism Fantastic visual imagery from the subconscious mind. Heavily influenced by Freud’s work on the free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious

63 Magritte: Reckless Sleeper A figure sleeps in a wooden alcove above a dark cloudy sky. The way into this space is barred by a tablet embedded with everyday objects, which are displayed as in a children’s book. These objects are presented as if dreamed by the sleeper. As Magritte knew, some or all of them could also be read as Freudian symbols. This combination of different possible interpretations adds to the painting’s suggestion of unease and disorientation. A figure sleeps in a wooden alcove above a dark cloudy sky. The way into this space is barred by a tablet embedded with everyday objects, which are displayed as in a children’s book. These objects are presented as if dreamed by the sleeper. As Magritte knew, some or all of them could also be read as Freudian symbols. This combination of different possible interpretations adds to the painting’s suggestion of unease and disorientation.

64 Salvador Dali Persistence of Memory “The only difference between me and a madman is that I am not mad.”

65 Abstraction Abstract art simplifies—a man becomes a stick figure Abstract art simplifies—a man becomes a stick figure Abstract artists capture the essence of reality in a few lines and colors. Abstract artists capture the essence of reality in a few lines and colors. There is often symbolism in the lines, shapes, and colors There is often symbolism in the lines, shapes, and colors It’s to be appreciated for its lines, shapes, and colors, not what it’s supposed to represent It’s to be appreciated for its lines, shapes, and colors, not what it’s supposed to represent Cubism is also seen by some as a type of abstraction Cubism is also seen by some as a type of abstraction

66 Kandinsky: Swinging Kandinsky was one of the pioneers of abstract painting and worked with geometrical forms from the mid 1920s. Although it makes no reference to the outside world, his work summons up the exciting rhythms of contemporary life. The title of this painting conveys a sense of dynamic movement. Kandinsky was one of the pioneers of abstract painting and worked with geometrical forms from the mid 1920s. Although it makes no reference to the outside world, his work summons up the exciting rhythms of contemporary life. The title of this painting conveys a sense of dynamic movement.

67 Jackson Pollock: Summertime Pollock painted with his canvases laid out on the studio floor, and developed what was later called his "drip" technique. Pollock painted with his canvases laid out on the studio floor, and developed what was later called his "drip" technique. He used hardened brushes, sticks and even basting syringes as paint applicators. He would poke a hole in the bottom of a tin can of paint to get an extended drip line. He used hardened brushes, sticks and even basting syringes as paint applicators. He would poke a hole in the bottom of a tin can of paint to get an extended drip line. With this technique, Pollock was able to achieve a more immediate means of creating art, the paint now literally flying from his chosen tool onto the canvas. By defying the conventional way of painting on an upright surface, he added a new dimension to his paintings by being able to view and apply paint to his canvases from all directions. With this technique, Pollock was able to achieve a more immediate means of creating art, the paint now literally flying from his chosen tool onto the canvas. By defying the conventional way of painting on an upright surface, he added a new dimension to his paintings by being able to view and apply paint to his canvases from all directions.

68 “My painting does not come from the easel. I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor. I need the resistance of a hard surface. On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting.” -- Jackson Pollack “My painting does not come from the easel. I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor. I need the resistance of a hard surface. On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting.” -- Jackson Pollack “Abstract Expressionism”— expresses emotions or ideas using only color and form “Abstract Expressionism”— expresses emotions or ideas using only color and form No. 5, 1948

69 Piet Mondrian Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red; Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue; Composition with Red

70 Mark Rothko

71 The work is stripped down to its most fundamental features The work is stripped down to its most fundamental features 1960s movement of young artists 1960s movement of young artists an aesthetic sensibility of restraint an aesthetic sensibility of restraint total abstraction -- the artists associated with Minimalism believed that a work of art should be an independent object in the world. Rather than imitating, symbolizing or embodying something else, it should be defined by its evident physical characteristics: materials, form and scale, and structural principles. total abstraction -- the artists associated with Minimalism believed that a work of art should be an independent object in the world. Rather than imitating, symbolizing or embodying something else, it should be defined by its evident physical characteristics: materials, form and scale, and structural principles. The real-time experience of the viewer, physically present in the space occupied by the work, was also central to its meaning. The real-time experience of the viewer, physically present in the space occupied by the work, was also central to its meaning. emphasis on geometry and mathematics, and on essential qualities such as weight and surface emphasis on geometry and mathematics, and on essential qualities such as weight and surface Minimalism

72 Donald Judd Judd began making stacks in the 1960s. Most consist of ten elements. The stacks are all ordered according to strict principles: the gap between each unit, and between the first unit and the floor, should be equal to the height of a single unit. Since the units are all identical, their significance derives from this pre- determined geometric order rather than from any individual features. However, Judd's attention to the sensuous qualities of his materials prevents Untitled from being cold or clinical. Judd began making stacks in the 1960s. Most consist of ten elements. The stacks are all ordered according to strict principles: the gap between each unit, and between the first unit and the floor, should be equal to the height of a single unit. Since the units are all identical, their significance derives from this pre- determined geometric order rather than from any individual features. However, Judd's attention to the sensuous qualities of his materials prevents Untitled from being cold or clinical.

73 Frank Stella (b. 1936) -- Sunset Beach, 1967

74 Minimalism in Music  Movement in the 1960s as a reaction to the complexities and disconnect of expressionism  Used an economy of materials and relied on basic melodies and repetitive rhythms  Also referred to (negatively) as “trance music”  Phillip Glass (b. 1937) and Steve Reich (b. 1936) are two representative composers  Influenced by non-Western music

75 Pop Art one of the major art movements of the twentieth century one of the major art movements of the twentieth century characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books, movies, music, etc. characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books, movies, music, etc. Pop artists were interested in raising mundane everyday things to heroic proportions Pop artists were interested in raising mundane everyday things to heroic proportions

76 Roy Lichtenstein: Whaam! Whaam!' is based on an image from 'All American Men of War' published by DC comics in Throughout the 1960s, Lichtenstein frequently drew on commercial art sources such as comic images or advertisements, attracted by the way highly emotional subject matter could be depicted using detached techniques. Transferring this to a painting context, Lichtenstein could present powerfully charged scenes in an impersonal manner. Whaam!' is based on an image from 'All American Men of War' published by DC comics in Throughout the 1960s, Lichtenstein frequently drew on commercial art sources such as comic images or advertisements, attracted by the way highly emotional subject matter could be depicted using detached techniques. Transferring this to a painting context, Lichtenstein could present powerfully charged scenes in an impersonal manner.

77 Warhol


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