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Medicinal plants and medical plant materials that contain phenol compounds, simple phenols and their glycosides.

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Presentation on theme: "Medicinal plants and medical plant materials that contain phenol compounds, simple phenols and their glycosides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medicinal plants and medical plant materials that contain phenol compounds, simple phenols and their glycosides

2 Planner 1. Phenolic compounds and their classification. 2. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. 3. MP and MPM containining simple phenols and phenolic glycosides

3 Phenolic compounds are the substances containing benzoic nucleus with one or several hydroxylic groups and their derivatives. If the molecule contains two or more hydroxylic groups there is polyphenols.

4 Basic skeleton ClassExamples C6Simple phenols, Benzoquinones Benzoquinones Catechol, Hydroquinone, 2,6- Dimethoxybenzoquinone, phenol, pirocatechol C6-1Alkilphenol Phenolic alcohol Phenolic aldehydes Phenolic acids p-cresol Saligenin Vanilin, Salicylic Gallic, salicylic C6-C2AcetophenonesAcetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic acidsPhenylacetic acids 3-Acetyl-6-methoxybenzaldehyde, Tyrosol, p- Hydroxyphenylacetic acid C6-C3 Hydroxycinnamic acidsHydroxycinnamic acids, Phenylpropenes, Coumarins, Isocoumarins, Chromones PhenylpropenesCoumarins IsocoumarinsChromones Caffeic, ferulic acids, Myristicin, Eugenol, Umbelliferone, aesculetin, Bergenon, EugeninBergenon C6-C4 NaphthoquinonesJuglone, Plumbagin Phenolic compounds with one benzoic nucleus

5 Basic skeletonClassExamples C6-C1-C6XanthonoidsMangiferin C6-C2-C6StilbenoidsStilbenoids, AnthraquinonesAnthraquinonesResveratrol, Emodin C6-C3-C6ChalconoidsChalconoids, Flavonoids, Isoflavonoids, NeoflavonoidsFlavonoids Quercetin, cyanidin, Genistein (C6-C3)2LignansLignans, NeolignansNeolignansPinoresinol, Eusiderin, rosmarinic acid Phenolic compounds with two benzoic nucleus Polymeric compounds (polyphenols) (C6-C3)n, (C6)n, (C6-C3-C6)n LigninsLignins, Catechol melanins, Flavolans (Condensed tannins), Polyphenolic proteins, Polyphenols Catechol melaninsCondensed tannins Polyphenolic proteins Polyphenols Raspberry ellagitanninRaspberry ellagitannin, Tannic acid Tannic acid



8 reducing, dimerization polymerisation Lignans Lignins Coumarins oxidation + malonat 3 molecules Phlavonoids Stilbens p-hydroxycinnamic (p-coumaric) acid Phenolic acid Acetophenones Phenilacetate acids Combined forms of hydroxycinnamic acids Biosynthesis some natural compounds

9 Phenol Hydroquinone Pyrocatechin PyrogalolPhloroglucinol Salicylic alcohol Salicylic aldehydeSalicineSalidroside

10 Physicochemical properties of phenol glycosides Phenolic glycosides are white crystal substances, soluble in water, ethanol and insoluble in ether or chlorophorm. They can hydrolyse while heated with mineral acids.

11 Obtaining Phenolic glycosides are extracted from plants with ethanol and methanol

12 Uvae ursi folia Uvae ursi cormi Arctostaphylos uva-ursi- Bearberry Ericaceae BAS: leaves – arbutin glicosides (8-12 %), methylarbutin, hydroquinon, galic, elagic acids, tannin (7-19 %), (+)-catechol, ursone and the flavone derivative quercetin.

13 Arbutin Methylarbutin Arbutin Hydroquinon

14 It can be used to treat arthritis, back pain, bed wetting, bile problems, bladder infections, bloating, cystitis, diabetes (by removing excessive sugar from the blood), diarrhoea, gallstones, gonorrhoea, haemorrhoids, kidney stones and other diseases It has a strong bacteriostatic action against Staphylococci and E. coli It is advised to use bearberry no more than 7-10 days at a time. Decoctum is the component of the diarrhoea composition

15 Vaccinium vitis idaea and Chimaphyla umbellate can be collected by mistake as Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

16 Vitis idaea folia Vitis idaea cormi Vaccinium vitis idaea- Lingonberry, cowberry, foxberry, mountain cranberry Ericaceae Medicines have diuretic and antiseptic action and are used in treatment of cystitis, gonorrhea, pyelonephritis and urolithiasis. “Brusniver” has diuretic and nephrolitic action. Leaves of lingonberry contain less tannins than leaves of bearberry and thus can be prescribed for people with kidney disease. Inhalations and sprays from lingonberry extract can be used for complex treatment of pneumonia and bronchitis. For treatment of stomatitis, parodontitis, angina, chronic tonsillitis, gingivitis, mouth ulcers the decoction is prescribed as rinsing agent

17 Rhodiolae roseae rhizomata et radices Rhodiola rosea- Golden root, roseroot, Aaron’s root Crassulaceae Liquid extract has tonic and anti-stress action. A clinical trial showed significant effect for a golden rose extract in doses 340-680 mg per day in 18-70-year- old male and female patients with mild-to- moderate depression

18 Violae herba Viola tricolor- Heartsease, wild pansy Viola arvensis- Field pansy Violaceae Herb of heartsease has expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic and anti- inflammation action. Viola is the part of diuretic and chest (pectoral) mixes. In homeopathy fresh flowering plant is used for treatment of diathesis in babies, skin problems and night bed wetting

19 Peoniae anomale herba Peoniae anomale rhizomata et radices Paeonia anomala- Peony Paeoniaceae Tincture of peony has sedative effect on the central nervous system and used for treatment of neurasthenia, insomnia and neuroses. In folk medicine- treatment of gastrointestinal system diseases and epilepsy

20 Salicis cortex Salix acutifolia- long-leaved violet willow Salicaceae Willow is employed as an anti-inflammatory in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and muscular pains due to the high content of salicylic acid

21 Rubi idaei fructus Rubus idaeus- raspberry Rosaceae From fruits we can do a tincture with diaphoretic and diuretic action which can be used to treat infection diseases and high temperature. Syrup is very tasty and used to correct the taste of medicines

22 Cynarae folia et anthodia Cynara scolymus- Artichoke Asteraceae Leaves and/or stems are used to increase bile production, have cholegogic, diuretic, hepatoprotective action. Induce the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in blood. Extract, tincture, Cynarin (increases bile flow), Chophytol.

23 Filicis maris rhizomata Dryopteris filix-mas- Male fern Dryopteridaceae ( Aspidiaceae) Extracts of male fern were traditionally employed as taenicides, particularly for tape worms, but safer drugs are now available and used in preference

24 Other types of fern can be collected by mistake-lady fern and ostrich fern

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