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The class of History 298: Crusades and their Cultures presents CRUSADER TECHNOLOGY A POSTER PRESENTATION FAIR WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2:15-3:30 SCHWARTZ.

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Presentation on theme: "The class of History 298: Crusades and their Cultures presents CRUSADER TECHNOLOGY A POSTER PRESENTATION FAIR WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2:15-3:30 SCHWARTZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 The class of History 298: Crusades and their Cultures presents CRUSADER TECHNOLOGY A POSTER PRESENTATION FAIR WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2:15-3:30 SCHWARTZ SCHOOL, ROOM 290

2 Crisis and Recovery Early-modern Islamic Empires

3 Ottoman Expansion

4 The Ottoman Empire ( ) Osman Bey ( ) ghazi: Muslim religious warriors Expansion: light cavalry volunteer infantry later, heavy cavalry Janissary corps: Balkans Christian boys Mamluks ( ) devshirme

5 Mehmed II (“the Conqueror,” r ) capture of Constantinople, 1453 renamed Istanbul warrior sultan to emperor of “two lands” (Europe, Asia) and “two seas” (Black Sea, Mediterranean) planned to capture Pope, unsuccessful

6 Suleyman the Magnificent (r ) expanded into Asia, Europe besieged Vienna, 1529 developed naval power Istanbul, Topkapi palace, harem, bedroom of Murad III (r. 1574–95)

7 The Safavid Empire Ismail young military leader, r becomes Shah, proclaims official religion of realm Twelver Shiism quzilbash (“red heads”) empire after Safi al-Din ( ), Sufi thinker Battle of Chaldiran (1514) Shah Abbas the Great (r ) reforms administration, military expands trade military expansion

8 The Mughal Empire Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the Tiger) invaded northern India for plunder, 1523 technological advantage founds Mughal (Persian for Mongol) dynasty most of the subcontinent followed by: Akbar Aurangzeb ‘Maharao Durjansal of Kotah on His Elephant Ranasangar’ circa 1760

9 Elements in Common ‘gunpowder’ empires prestige of dynasty:piety military prowess of the ruler close relations with Sufism, ghazi tradition Steppe Turkish traditions unilateral decrees intra-family conflicts over power ♀ banned from public activity exceptionalism tradition of revering mothers - 1 st wives from Chinggis Khan Süleyman the Magnificent defers to concubine Hürrem Sultana Ukrainian woman convinces husband to murder eldest son in favor of her own child

10 Agriculture, Trade and Demographics American crops effect cultural change in Muslim empires coffee, tobacco important opposition from conservatives, fearing lax morality of coffee houses population growth - but also reflects territorial additions and losses Trade:English East India Company, French East India Company, and Dutch VOC

11 Characterized by: Religious Diversity Status of Religious Minorities Capital Cities

12 Defining early-modern point of contact deteriorating leadership: ‘internal rot’ religious tensions: role of women Safavid Shiites persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims, Sufis Wahhabi movement in Arabia denounces Ottomans as unfit to rule force destruction of observatory, printing press foreign trade controlled by Europeans Military, administrative network expensive Janissaries mutiny, 1589, other revolts follow European military technology advances faster than Ottomans can purchase it

13 Culturally Conservative Europeans actively studying Islamic cultures for purposes of trade, missionary activities Islamic empires less interested in outside world Swiftly fell behind in technological development e.g. Jews from Spain establish 1 st printing press in Anatolia in late 15C printing of books in Turkish and Arabic forbidden until 1729 handwritten books preferred, but weak levels of dissemination

14 1. 1. What happens in the story? Tuesday: Who are the main characters? Is she a bad woman? On what basis do we make that judgment? What are the men in the story doing – read carefully If we read this as an allegory – what could the story be arguing about Islamic society? Why might someone like Richard Burton have translated these stories into English? orientalism


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