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Methods of Caries Well-Timed Diagnostics X-ray Diagnostics in Dentistry Operative Dentistry 1 ST1/ZAA35 Stomatolog Julia Morozova.

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Presentation on theme: "Methods of Caries Well-Timed Diagnostics X-ray Diagnostics in Dentistry Operative Dentistry 1 ST1/ZAA35 Stomatolog Julia Morozova."— Presentation transcript:

1 Methods of Caries Well-Timed Diagnostics X-ray Diagnostics in Dentistry
Operative Dentistry 1 ST1/ZAA35 Stomatolog Julia Morozova

2 Caries well-timed diagnostics
Diagnostics of initial stages of dental caries Primary prevention- without preparation Secondary prevention- minimal invasive meausures

3 Caries incipiens: clinical symptoms
Focus of enamel demineralization White spot Surface layer of enamel is maintained

4 Methods of caries well-timed diagnostics
Common: Visual-tactile Transillumination using dental mirror and source of light Detection using dyes With special equipment Radiographic diagnostics Laser Fluorescence Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence Fiber Optic Trasillumination Digital Image Fiber Optic Transillumination Electronic Caries Monitor Ultrasonic detection

5 Methods of caries well-timed diagnostics (requiring special equipment)
Physical effect Application in caries diagnostics X-rays RTG, RVG, CBCT, CBVT Laser fluorescence Laser detection of caries (DIAGNOdent) Electricity Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM) Ultrasound Ultrasonic detection of caries Light with different wavelength Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) Fiber Optic Transillumination (FOTI) (Dia Lux) Digital Image Fiber Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI) (DIAGNOcam)

6 Visual-tactile assessment
Clean and dry tooth surface Dental mirror Dental probe Perfect illumination Magnification

7 Transillumination using dental mirror and light from unit
For approximal surfaces of frontal teeth

8 Detection using dyes Use: Caries detection
Detection of necrotic tissues during preparation (dye is connected with irreversibly destructured collagen fibers) Finding of root canal entrances in endodontics Detection of tooth cracks

9 Radiographic examination
Intraoral radiograms Bite-wing (interproximal) projection Ortopantomogram Cone beam volumetric tomography

10 Parallel technique of radiogram making
The radiogram is the most close to the real situation in the mouth (isometric orthoradial) It requares the use of special holders

11 Carious lesion Clearing with different size
Approximal, fissural, root, secondary (reccurent) carious lesions It is not deciding examination method for vestibular, oral or occlusal lesions The most suitable is the bite-wing technique (premolar, molar)

12 Bite-wing radiograms evaluation
D1 -clearing is in the outer half of the enamel D2 -clearing is in the inner half of the enamel D3 -clearing goes upto enamel-dentin junction D4 –clearing is in dentin

13 Laser Fluorescence (DIAGNOdent)
Red light at a wavelength of 655 nm Sound hard dental tissues do not react to this wavelength Metabolites from cariogennic bacteria create an infrared fluorescence In special device (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Germany; Hibst, Gall, late 1990s) the emitted light is channelled through the handpiece and presented as a number on a display

14 DIAGNOdent- working procedure
Careful cleaning of tooth surface Drying by air stream Calibration of the device by application onto sound enamel Measuring Allows to detect carious lesions on the smooth, occlusal as well as approximal surfaces

15 DIAGNOdent- criteria for evaluation
0 – 4 Sound enamel or caries incipiens (D1) 4 – 10 Decay of inner layer of enamel without damage of enamel-dentin junction (D2) 10 – 18 Decay of external layer of dentin (D3) >18 Extensive decay of inner layer of dentin (D4) *A.Lussi, S. Imwinkelried, N.B. Pitts, C. Longbottom, E. Reich. Performance and Reproducibility of a Laser Fluorescence System for Detection of Occlusal Caries in vitro. Caries Res. 1999;33(4):261–266

16 Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF)
Uses the phenomenon of tooth auto fluorescence Primary diagnostics as well as check up of necrotic tissues removing Soprolife (ActeonGroup, France); InspektorTM Pro (Inspektor Dental Care, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

17 Fiber Optic Transillumination (FOTI)
Uses light transmission through the tooth Demineralized dental hard tissues scatter and absorb light more than sound tissue For enamel and dentin caries detection on occlusal, approximal and smooth surfaces of anterior and posterior teeth (carious lesions appear darker compared to sound tissue) Dia Lux (KaVo, Germany)

18 Digital Imaging of Fiber Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI)
Uses the same principles like FOTI White light is delivered through an optical fiber via handpiece channelling the image back to a digital camera and visualizing the image on a monitor via computer system DIAGNOcam (KaVo, Germany)

19 DIFOTI (DIAGNOcam): principle of working
Light with wave length 780 nm Tooth is light conductor Digital camera makes black-and-white record on the computer display Tooth decay looks like dark shade

20 DIFOTI: contraindications, limits of using
Large fillings Crowns Subgingival localization of tooth decay Calculus or tooth discoloration can lead to light scattering and can be shown like shade

21 DIFOTI: possibilities
Primary carious lesions (occlusal and approximal) esp. on distal teeth Caries reccurent (upto definite depth) Cracks or imperfections in supragingival regio

22 Electronic Caries Measurement (ECM)
Sound dental hard tissue shows very high electrical resistance or impedance Demineralized enamel has lower resistance Ground-unit Handpiece The result is presented on a display as a number between 1 and 13

23 Alternating Current Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIST)
It is based on the same principle of electrical proud as the ECM It measures resistance, continuous conduction as well as transverse conductance CarieScanTM (IDMoS PLC, Dundee, UK)

24 Ultrasound diagnostics (Ultrasonic Caries Detector- UCD)
Sound waves can pass through gases, liquids and solids and boundaries between them Images of tissues can be acquired by collecting of the reflected sound waves Ultrasonic probe allows to examine inaccessible places UCD (Novadent Ltd., Lod, Israel)

25 Thank you for attention

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