Presentation on theme: "Locally Advanced and Metastatic Disease"— Presentation transcript:
1Locally Advanced and Metastatic Disease Breast CancerLocally Advanced and Metastatic DiseaseC. Legler MD FRCPCSeptember 30, 2005
2Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer Overview:Principles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancerSystemic therapy of metastatic breast cancerChemotherapyHormonal agentsBiologic agentsBisphosphonatesRationale for selection of treatment in metastatic diseasechemotherapy vs. hormonal agentsIdeal first line agents?
3Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Definition: breast cancer, without distant metastatic spread, which is unresectable due toSatellite skin nodulesExtensive regional lymph node involvementFixation to skin or chest wallInflammatory breast cancer
4Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Combined modality treatment is the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer.Neoadjuvant chemotherapyGoals are to improve resectability of the tumour and to increase rates of breast conserving treatment.Locoregional therapySurgery, or radiotherapy, or both.
5Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Response rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy:Major responders: %Clinical complete responders: 8-63%Pathologic complete responders: 3-30%A major response to chemotherapy is associated with improved disease-free and overall survival.
6Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Survival is related to axillary lymph node status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Positive nodes 5-year overall survival%%%> %
7Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Survival is related to response of primary tumour to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.AuthorMedian follow-up, yearsSurvival, patients with complete responseSurvival, patients with partial responseMethod of response assessmentEltahir, 1998574% overall survival36% overall survivalClinical responseKuerer, 199989% overall survival64% overall survivalPathologic responseBonnadonna,1998886% disease-free survival56% disease-free survival
8Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Duration of neoadjuvant chemotherapyOptimal duration of treatment is not known.Rule of thumb: “treat until maximal response.”May require from 2-8 treatments, depending on rapidity of response.Patients should be assessed by multidisciplinary team after every 2 cycles of chemotherapy to determine optimal timing of surgery.
9Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Ideal neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen has not been identified.Anthracycline based (epirubicin or adriamycin) chemotherapy is often used at start (AC, CAF, FEC).Taxanes (taxol, taxotere) are also extremely effective and have been shown to increase the rate of pathologic complete responses.
10Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Impact of Taxanes in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.TAX-301 trial162 patients, randomly assigned to pre-operative CAVP X 8 cycles vs.CAVP x 4 then Taxotere X45 year overall survival:CAVP X 8: 78%CAVP X 4 + Taxotere X 4: 97%
11Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Impact of Taxanes in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, continuedNSABP B-27Preoperative AC X 4 vspreoperative AC X 4 plus Taxotere X 4pathologic CR negative nodesAC X4 14% 51%AC X4,Tax X4 26% 58%
12Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Consensus for chemotherapyGive 4 cycles of anthracycline based or taxane chemotherapy.Assess response:If CR or near CR: proceed to definitive local therapy, then 4 cycles of non cross-resistant regimen.If less than “near complete response”: proceed to 4 cycles of non cross-resistant chemotherapy, then definitive local therapy.
13Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Consensus for chemotherapy, continued:A total of 8 chemotherapy cycles should be given (anthracycline x 4, taxane x 4).All 8 cycles may be given preoperatively, or they may be split between preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy.e.g. Anthracycline x4 then surgery then Taxane x4.Or Anthracycline x4 then Taxane x4 then surgery.Or Taxane x4 then surgery then Anthracycline x4.Or Taxane x4 then Anthracycline x4 then surgery.
14Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Role of Herceptin (trastuzumab):Initial reports are encouraging, but use of herceptin cannot be recommended outside of a clinical trial.Role of High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support:No improvement in DFS or OS, with significant increase in toxicity and worsening of quality of life, therefore not recommended.
15Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Hormonal ManagementAcceptable in Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor positive cancers.Best used in patients where chemotherapy is relatively contraindicatedElderlyPoor performance statusComorbid illnessPatient reluctance to accept chemotherapy
16Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Hormonal Management, continued:Rate of pathologic complete response is greatly diminished.Rate of breast-conserving treatment is greatly diminished.Response to treatment is much slower, e.g. 3-9 months.
17Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Summary:Standard of care is multimodality treatment.Chemotherapy: should contain anthracyclines and/or taxanes and should begin before surgery.Locoregional therapy: should be performed when a maximal tumour response has been obtained.Post-operative chemotherapy: should be performed if less than 8 cycles were given pre-operatively, until a total of 8 cycles of chemotherapy have been given.Hormonal management: is a slower option, and is restricted to ER and/or PR positive tumours.
18Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Any questions on systemic treatment of locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer?
19Metastatic Breast Cancer Goals of treatment of metastatic breast cancer:Cure: not a realistic goalFew patients have complete responses, and disease free intervals are short.Prolongation of survival:5-10% of patients will survive 5 years or more.2-5% of patients are long-term survivors (>10 years).Improvement of Quality of Life:Most patients experience fewer disease symptoms, with manageable treatment side effects.
21Metastatic Breast Cancer Different options can be combined.Herceptin and chemotherapy.Hormonal agents and bisphosphonates.Herceptin, chemotherapy and bisphosphonates.
22Metastatic Breast Cancer How is initial therapy selected?Patient factors: age, comorbid conditions, willingness to accept side effects.Tumour factors: ER, PR, her-2/neu status.Course of illness: extent and location of metastases, disease-free interval, pace of spread of metastases.Treatment factors: adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant hormonal agents, adjuvant radiotherapy.
23Metastatic Breast Cancer The use of hormonal agents is favoured if:Tumour is ER and/or PR positive.Disease-free interval is long.Few sites of metastases.Metastases do not involve visceral organs.Pace of disease progression is slow.Patient has responded to previous hormonal agents.
24Metastatic Breast Cancer Use of hormonal agents, continuedHormonal agents require 8-12 weeks to determine their efficacy, thus they are not recommended for patients with extensive visceral metastases.Initial response to hormonal agents is 50-60% is ER/PR positive patients.
25Metastatic Breast Cancer The use of chemotherapy is favoured if:Tumour is negative for ER and PR.Disease-free interval is short.Extensive metastases are present, especially visceral disease (liver, lung).Disease is progressing rapidly.Patient has not responded to previous hormonal agents.Initial response to chemotherapy is 50-75%.No clear advantage of combination regimens over use of sequential single agents.
26Metastatic Breast Cancer Hormonal agents:Tamoxifen:Mixed estrogen receptor agonist-antagonist.Can be used in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.Response rates are 50-60%.Duration of response may be years.Toxicities: hot flashes, increased risks of DVT/ pulmonary embolism, endometrial cancerMay be associated with tumour flare reaction in up to 13% of patients.
27Metastatic Breast Cancer Hormonal agents, continued:Aromatase inhibitors:Anastrozole (Arimidex), non-steroidalLetrozole (Femara), non-steroidalExemestane (Aromasin), steroidalMethod of action: block conversion of adrenal androgens to estrogen in adipose tissue and in the breast.Use is restricted to postmenopausal women.Side effects: hot flashes, myalgias/arthralgias, increased risk of osteoporosis, altered lipid profiles.
28Metastatic Breast Cancer Hormonal agents, continued:Aromatase inhibitors:Anastrozole and Letrozole:are non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors.are both superior to Megace in tamoxifen refractory patients.have similar efficacy to tamoxifen, with fewer side effects.
29Metastatic Breast Cancer Hormonal agents, continued:Aromatase inhibitors:Exemestane:is a steroidal aromatase inhibitor.is superior to Megace, and at least as effective as Tamoxifen.can be effective in patients who have failed non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors.
30Metastatic Breast Cancer Hormonal agents, continued:Megace (megestrol acetate)Is a progestinBefore aromatase inhibitors, was considered second-line therapy, after tamoxifen.May still have activity in some patients who have failed tamoxifen and/or aromatase inhibitors.Side effects: increased appetite, weight gain, increased risk of DVT/pulmonary embolism.
31Metastatic Breast Cancer Sequencing of Hormonal agents in metastatic breast cancer:Postmenopausal patients:Anastrozole or Letrozole as first lineExemestane as second lineTamoxifen and Megace remain options for third line OR for patients who do not tolerate aromatase inhibitors.Premenopausal patients:Tamoxifen as first lineMegace OR aromatase inhibitor with ovarian ablation as second line.
32Metastatic Breast Cancer Chemotherapy:Numerous agents have activity in metastatic breast cancer:AnthracyclinesTaxanesFluoropyrimidinesVinca alkaloidsOther drugs: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, gemcitabine
33Metastatic Breast Cancer Anthracyclinesdoxorubicin (Adriamycin), epirubicin,mitoxantroneliposomal-PEGylated doxorubicin (Doxil-Caelyx)Are among the most active agents in breast cancer (response rate at least 50%)
34Metastatic Breast Cancer Anthracyclines (cont’d)Used in combination with cyclophosphamide, and 5-fluorouracilSignificant toxicities existNauseaAlopeciaMucositisMyelosuppressionCumulative cardiomyopathyRadiation recall effect
35Metastatic Breast Cancer Anthracyclines, cont’dCumulative cardiomyopathy is the limiting toxicity in metastatic breast cancer, particularly in patients who received anthracyclines in the adjuvant setting.Liposomal PEGylated doxorubicinhas less cardiomyopathy, more cutaneous side effects (palmar-plantar syndrome).Much more expensive than doxorubicin.
36Metastatic Breast Cancer TaxanesPaclitaxel (Taxol)Docetaxel (Taxotere)Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane)Are the single most active drugs in breast cancer and the most active in adriamycin-refractory patients. (RR = 60%)Common toxicities include peripheral neuropathy, myalgias, arthralgias and alopecia.
37Metastatic Breast Cancer Taxanes, cont’d:Paclitaxel (taxol)can induce anaphylactoid reactions, requiring premedication with steroids and antihistamines.Efficacy and toxicity profile can be improved by weekly administration (as opposed to q3weeks).Docetaxel (taxotere)Can induce responses in 25% of patients who are resistant to paclitaxel.Cumulative toxicities include fluid retention, sclerosis of tear ducts, loss of fingernails/toenails.
38Metastatic Breast Cancer Taxanes, cont’dNanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane)Novel formulation, does not require Cremophor.No risk of anaphylactoid reaction, thus no need for steroids.Better tissue penetration.Less toxic and more effective than paclitaxel.Approved in the USA, not yet approved in Canada.
39Metastatic Breast Cancer Fluoropyrimidines:5-fluorouracil:is commonly used in combinations, such as CMF, CAF, FEC.Has activity as a single agent, esp. in prolonged infusions, but these regimens are not convenient.Toxicities: mucositis (stomatitis, enteritis, colitis), hand-foot syndrome, some myelosuppression
40Metastatic Breast Cancer Fluoropyrimidines, cont’dCapecitabine (Xeloda)Oral 5-FU derivative, given BID X14 days q21days.Prodrug is activated to 5-FU in tumour cells, mimics a prolonged 5-FU infusion.Has activity even in patients who are refractory to anthracyclines and taxanes!! (RR=25%)Dose limiting toxicity is usually hand-foot syndrome.NOT HEPATICALLY METABOLIZED, thus ideal agent in patients with severe liver dysfunction!
41Metastatic Breast Cancer Vinca alkaloids:Vinorelbine (Navelbine)Semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid, related to VCR/VBLLess neurotoxicity, due to diminished binding to axonal microtubules.Active even in heavily pretreated patients (response rates = 25-50%).Excellent toxicity profile: no nausea, no alopecia, no mucositisWell tolerated by elderly, frail patients
42Metastatic Breast Cancer Other drugs:CyclophosphamideMethotrexateGemcitabineAll have limited activity as single agents, but are useful in combinations with other active drugse.g. CMF, CAF, Gemcitabine-Taxol
43Metastatic Breast Cancer Biologic agentsHerceptin (trastuzumab)Humanized mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the her-2/neu protein.Has activity against breast cancers that strongly overexpress her-2/neu (score= 3+/3).Has activity as a single agent, even in heavily pre-treated patients.
44Metastatic Breast Cancer Herceptin, cont’dCan be safely administered with taxanes and vinorelbine, with increased response rates (compared to chemotherapy alone).Cannot be given with adriamycin; response rates increase BUT rate of cardiomyopathy rises to 27%!!!Patients on herceptin who have received anthracyclines in the past need monitoring for cardiac toxicity.
45Metastatic Breast Cancer Bisphosphonates:Pamidronate (Aredia)Zolendronate (Zometa)Given monthly to patients with bone metastases.Leads to decreased risk of skeletal complications (pain, fractures, need for radiotherapy)Few toxicities: fever and chills post-infusion, muscle spasms (transient hypocalcemia)Rare cumulative toxicity: osteonecrosis of the mandible (!)
46Metastatic Breast Cancer A rational approach to selecting therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer:For patients with bone metastases:monthly administration of Pamidronate or Zolendronate (regardless of ER/PR/her-2 status)For patients with ER and/or PR positive breast cancer, with low burden of metastases and slow pace of disease:start with hormonal agents.If patient was on a hormonal agent at time of relapse, try to select a non cross-resistant agent.
47Metastatic Breast Cancer A rational approach to selecting therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer:For patients with ER-negative/PR-negative disease OR for patients with high tumour burden OR with rapid disease progression:Start with chemotherapyIn anthracycline-naïve patients, use anthracyclines.In patients who had adjuvant anthracyclines, use taxanes.
48Metastatic Breast Cancer A rational approach to selecting therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer:For patients with ER-negative/PR-negative disease OR for patients with high tumour burden OR with rapid disease progression:2nd, 3rd, 4th lines of treatment depend on patient’s previous side effects and current symptoms.e.g. navelbine contraindicated in patient with abnormal liver function tests; capecitabine would be a safer choice.
49Metastatic Breast Cancer A rational approach to selecting therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer:For patients with her-2/neu 3+ disease:Herceptin should be given with taxane or vinorelbine chemotherapy.Herceptin can be given as a single agent even in heavily pre-treated patients.Herceptin as a single agent can be given as “maintenance” therapy after “inducing” a major reduction in tumour burden with herceptin-chemo combination.
50Metastatic Breast Cancer Any questions about systemic treatment of metastatic breast cancer?
51Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer Summary:For locally advanced breast cancer:Assessment by a multidisciplinary team (surgical, radiation and medical oncologists) is essential.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used to improve resectability.Anthracyclines and taxanes are key components of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
52Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer Summary, cont’dFor metastatic breast cancer, numerous active agents existHormonal agentsChemotherapy agentsBiologic agentsBisphosphonatesThese agents can be combined to optimize treatment.
53Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer Summary, continued:Choice of initial therapy depends onPatient factors: age, comorbiditiesTumour factors: receptor status, Her-2 statusCourse of illness: tumour burden, pace of progressionTreatment factors: adjuvant treatment received; response to and tolerance of prior treatment