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Introduction to Ultra WideBand Systems Chia-Hsin Cheng.

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1 Introduction to Ultra WideBand Systems Chia-Hsin Cheng

2 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Outlines Introduction The history of UWB UWB Regulations (FCC Rules) UWB signals UWB in IEEE 802 Standards The Application of UWB

3 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Introduction The world of ultra wideband (UWB) has changed dramatically in very recent history. In the past 20 years, UWB was used for radar, sensing, military communications and niche applications. A substantial change occurred in February 2002, when the FCC (2002a,b) issued a ruling that UWB could be used for data communications as well as for radar and safety applications. Recently, UWB technology has been focused on consumer electronics and communications. Ideal targets for UWB systems are low power, low cost, high data rates, precise positioning capability and extremely low interference.

4 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB transmitter signal BW: Or, BW  500 MHz regardless of fractional BW UWB Transmitter Defined fu-flfu-fl fu+flfu+fl 2  0.20 Where: f u = upper 10 dB down point f l = lower 10 dB down point Source: US 47 CFR Part15 Ultra-Wideband Operations FCC Report and Order, 22 April 2002:

5 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB: Large Fractional Bandwidth Power Spectral Density (dB) one “chip” CDMA: 1.288Mcps/1.8 GHz 0.07% bandwidth 6% bandwidth Frequency (GHz) Random noise signal 100% bandwidth UWBNB 20% bandwidth

6 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Large Relative (and Absolute) Bandwidth UWB is a form of extremely wide spread spectrum where RF energy is spread over gigahertz of spectrum  Wider than any narrowband system by orders of magnitude  Power seen by a narrowband system is a fraction of the total  UWB signals can be designed to look like imperceptible random noise to conventional radios Narrowband (30kHz) Wideband CDMA (5 MHz) UWB (Several GHz) Frequency Part 15 Limit ( -41.3dBm/Hz )

7 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Why is Ultra Wideband So Effective? Shannon showed that the system capacity, C, of a channel perturbed by AWGN --- Where: C = Max Channel Capacity (bits/sec) B = Channel Bandwidth (Hz) S = Signal Power (watts) N = Noise Power (watts) Capacity per channel (bps)  B Capacity per channel (bps)  log(1+S/N) 1.Increase B 2.Increase S/N, use higher order modulation 3.Increase number of channels using spatial separation (e.g., MIMO)

8 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Throughput Low Power UWB Comparable to High Power Wireless Systems UWB throughput between a and b

9 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB Properties Extremely difficult to detect by unintended users  Highly Secured Non-interfering to other communication systems  It appears like noise for other systems Both Line of Sight and non-Line of Sight operation  Can pass through walls and doors High multipath immunity Common architecture for communications, radar & positioning (software re-definable) Low cost, low power, nearly all-digital and single chip architecture

10 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Outlines Introduction The history of UWB UWB Regulations (FCC Rules) UWB signals UWB in IEEE 802 Standards The Application of UWB

11 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. The history of UWB Technology Before 1900: Wireless Began as UWB  Large RF bandwidths, but did not take advantage of large spreading gain s: Wireless goes ‘ tuned ’  Analog processing: filters, resonators  ‘ Separation of services by wavelength ’  Era of wireless telephony begins: AM / SSB / FM  Commercial broadcasting matures, radar and signal processing s: Digital techniques applied to UWB  Wide band impulse radar  Allows for realization of the HUGE available spreading gain Now: UWB approved by FCC for commercialization For further details, refer to ref.[1]

12 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. What UWB is Today 7,500 MHz available spectrum for unlicensed use  US operating frequency: 3,100 – 10,600 MHz  Emission limit: -41.3dBm/MHz EIRP  Indoor and handheld systems  Other restrictions and measurement procedures in Report and Order UWB transmitter defined as having the lesser of  Fractional bandwidth greater than 20%  Occupies more than 500 MHz UWB is NOT defined in terms of  Modulation  or Carrierless  or Impulse radio

13 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Outlines Introduction The history of UWB UWB Regulations (FCC Rules) UWB signals UWB in IEEE 802 Standards The Application of UWB

14 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Summary of the FCC Rules Significant protection provided for sensitive systems  GPS, Federal aviation systems, etc. Lowest emission limits ever by FCC Incorporates NTIA (National Telecomm. and Info. Administration ) recommendations Allows UWB technology to coexist with existing radio services without causing interference FCC opened up new spectrum for UWB transmissions  One of the bands is from 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz  Maximum power emission limit is dBm/MHz

15 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. FCC UWB Device Classifications Report and Order authorizes 5 classes of devices with different limits for each:  Imaging Systems  Ground penetrating radars, wall imaging, medical imaging  Thru-wall Imaging & Surveillance Systems  Communication and Measurement Systems  Indoor Systems  Hand-held Systems  Vehicular Radar Systems  collision avoidance, improved airbag activation, suspension systems, etc.

16 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. FCC First Report and Order Authorizes Five Types of Devices Class / ApplicationFrequency Band for Operation at Part 15 Limits User Limitations Communications and Measurement Systems 3.1 to 10.6 GHz (different “out-of-band” emission limits for indoor and hand-held devices) No Imaging: Ground Penetrating Radar, Wall, Medical Imaging <960 MHz or 3.1 to 10.6 GHzYes Imaging: Through-wall<960 MHz or 1.99 to 10.6 GHzYes Imaging: Surveillance1.99 to 10.6 GHzYes Vehicular22 to 29 GHzNo

17 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB Emission Limits for GPRs, Wall Imaging, & Medical Imaging Systems Operation is limited to law enforcement, fire and rescue organizations, scientific research institutions, commercial mining companies, and construction companies GPS Band Source:

18 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB Emission Limits for Thru-wall Imaging & Surveillance Systems Operation is limited to law enforcement, fire and rescue organizations. Surveillance systems may also be operated by public utilities and industrial entities GPS Band Source:

19 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB Emission Limit for Indoor Systems GPS Band Source:

20 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab GPS Band Source: Proposed UWB Emission Limit for “Outdoor” Systems Proposed in preliminary Report and Order, Feb. 14, 2002.

21 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab Frequency, GHz -40 EIRP, dBm/MHz First Report and Order, April 22, UWB Band- width must be contained here Actual UWB Emission Limit for Hand-held Systems

22 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Outlines Introduction The history of UWB UWB Regulations (FCC Rules) UWB signals UWB in IEEE 802 Standards The Application of UWB

23 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB Signals Monocycle Shapes for UWB Data Modulation Modulation Schemes

24 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB Monocycle shapes will affect the performance Listed monocycles’ duration is 0.5ns  Gaussian pulse  Gaussian Monocycle  Scholtz’s Monocycle  Manchester Monocycle  RZ- Manchester Monocycle  Sine Monocycle  Rectangle Monocycle For further details, refer to ref.[4]

25 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) Gaussian Pulse

26 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) Gaussian monocycle  Similar to the first derivative of Gaussian pulse

27 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) Scholtz’s monocycle  Similar to the second derivative of Gaussian pulse

28 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) Manchester Monocycle  It has amplitude A during half of the monocycle width and has amplitude –A during the other half.

29 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) RZ- Manchester Monocycle  It has amplitude A and –A only a portion of each half monocycle width.

30 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) Sine Monocycle  Just a period of sine wave

31 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Monocycle Shapes for UWB (cont.) Rectangle Monocycle  It has uniform amplitude A during the whole pulse width.

32 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Data Modulation A number of modulation schemes may be used with UWB systems. The potential modulation schemes include both orthogonal and antipodal schemes.  Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)  On-Off Keying (OOK)  Bi-Phase Modulation (BPSK)

33 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Modulation Schemes Many different pulse generation techniques may be used to satisfy the requirements of an UWB signal. The FCC requires that the fractional bandwidth is greater than 20 %, or that the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is more than 500MHz, whichever is less. The most common UWB concepts  Time-hopping (TH) technique  Direct-Sequence (DS) technique  Multi-band (MB) technique

34 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. TH-UWB TH-PPM 1. transmitting 0 TfTf T s : data symbol time TcTc t pulse w tr (t) S tr (t)

35 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. TH-UWB TH-PPM 2. transmitting 1 TfTf TsTs TcTc t     S tr (t)

36 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. DS-UWB

37 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Multiband UWB Refer to OFDM course

38 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Outlines Introduction The history of UWB UWB Regulations (FCC Rules) UWB signals UWB in IEEE 802 Standards The Application of UWB

39 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB in IEEE 802 Standards IEEE 802 Organization  IEEE a  IEEE a

40 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. WLAN™ IEEE WPAN™ IEEE WMAN™ IEEE “Bluetooth” “High Data Rate” MAC & 2.4 GHz PHY Task Group 3a Alt PHY (UWB) “Zigbee” 2.4 GHz LAN/MAN Standards Committee (Wireless Areas) Coexistence IEEE 802 Organization MBWA IEEE Regulatory TAG IEEE Coexistence TAG IEEE Based on: “Overview of and 3a,” R. F. Heile, Workshop on Current Developments in UWB, Institute for Infocomm Research, Singapore Study Group 4a (UWB?) Mini-Glossary: WLAN-wireless Local Area Network; MAN-Metropolitan Area Network; TAG-Technical Advisory Group;- MBWA-Mobile Broadband Wireless Access

41 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. IEEE Project 802 Local and Metropolitan Area Network Standards Committee Accredited by ANSI, Sponsored by IEEE Computer Society  Ethernet, Token Ring, Wireless, Cable Modem Standards  Bridging, VLAN, Security Standards Meets three times per year ( individuals, 15% non-US) Develops equivalent IEC/ISO JTC 1 standards JTC 1 series of equivalent standards are ISO 8802-nnn IEEE URLs  802 

42 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Standards : Range and Data Rate

43 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Candidate UWB Systems

44 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab a – high data rate WPAN standard Direct sequence (DS-UWB)  Championed by Motorola/XtremeSpectrum  Classic UWB, simple pulses,  2 frequency bands: GHz, GHz  CDMA has been proposed at the encoding layer  Spectrum dependent on the shaping filter – possible differing devices worldwide Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM)  Intel/TI/many others  Similar in nature to a/g  MHz bands (simplest devices need to support 3 lowest bands, 3.1GHz – 4.7 GHz)  Spectrum shaping flexibility for international use

45 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Detail of DS-CDMA Candidate for a Multi-band DS-CDMA Physical Layer Proposal Summary from IEEE document a- Merger-2-CFP-Presentation.ppt

46 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab High Band Low Band Multi-Band With an appropriate diplexer, the multi-band mode will support full-duplex operation (RX in one band while TX in the other)  Low Band (3.1 to 5.15 GHz)  25 Mbps to 450 Mbps  High Band (5.825 to 10.6 GHz)  25 Mbps to 900 Mbps  Multi-Band (3.1 to 5.15 GHz plus GHz to 10.6 GHz)  Up to 1.35 Gbps Two Band DS-CDMA 3 Spectral Modes of Operation

47 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Joint Time Frequency Wavelet Family Example Duplex Wavelet Mid Wavelet Long Wavelet GHz dB GHz dB GHz dB

48 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. PHY Proposal accommodates alternate spectral allocations Center frequency and bandwidth are adjustable Supports future spectral allocations Maintains UWB advantages (i.e. wide bandwidth for multipath resolution) No changes to silicon Example 1: Modified Low Band to include protection for GHz WLAN Band Example 2: Support for hypothetical “above 6 GHz” UWB definition Note 1: Reference doc IEEE /211 Spectral Flexibility and Scalability

49 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Detail of OFDM Candidate for a Multi-band OFDM Physical Layer Proposal Summary from IEEE document 03267r1P802-15_TG3a- Multi-band-OFDM-CFP-Presentation.ppt

50 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Overview of Multi-band OFDM Basic idea: divide spectrum into several 528 MHz bands. Information is transmitted using OFDM modulation on each band.  OFDM carriers are efficiently generated using an 128-point IFFT/FFT.  Internal precision is reduced by limiting the constellation size to QPSK. Information bits are interleaved across all bands to exploit frequency diversity and provide robustness against multi-path and interference ns cyclic prefix provides robustness against multi-path even in the worst channel environments. 9.5 ns guard interval provides sufficient time for switching between bands.

51 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Multi-band OFDM: TX Architecture Block diagram of an example TX architecture: Architecture is similar to that of a conventional and proven OFDM system. Can leverage existing OFDM solutions for the development of the Multi-band OFDM physical layer. For a given superframe, the time-frequency code is specified in the beacon by the PNC (PicoNet Controller). The time-frequency code is changed from one superframe to another in order to randomize multi-piconet interference.

52 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Band Plan Group the 528 MHz bands into 4 distinct groups Group A: Intended for 1 st generation devices (3.1 – 4.9 GHz) Group B: Reserved for future use (4.9 – 6.0 GHz) Group C: Intended for devices with improved SOP performance (6.0 – 8.1 GHz) Group D: Reserved for future use (8.1 – 10.6 GHz)

53 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab a – alternate PHY for Addresses the following  Globally deployable  Compatible / interoperable with  Longer range  Higher reliability  Ranging/localization support  Lower latency & support for mobility  Low cost Current UWB systems not quite suitable  90 nm CMOS is expensive, 200 mW is a lot of power Still in early stages  Proposals due Jan. 2005!  DS-UWB a major contender (Motorola)  Chirp Spread Spectrum another cool tech (Nanotron)  Many axes for diversity: Basic tech (2.4 v. UWB), ranging (UWB v. CSS v. Phase-based ranging), pulse shapes, channel arbitration (CSMA v. CDMA)

54 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Outlines Introduction The history of UWB UWB Regulations (FCC Rules) UWB signals Standards of IEEE 802 The Application of UWB

55 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. The Application of UWB Ultra-wideband is the contortionist of the wireless world – it is flexible enough to work in many different ways while still maintaining its character. These applications are distributed amongst three categories:  Communications and sensors  Position location and tracking  Radar

56 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. The Application of UWB Single and multi-family dwelling residents who have at least one of the following configurations in their dwellings: Source: doc.: IEEE /036r0 –Remote control for: Multimedia PC with interactive gaming options Consumer devices like,TV (w internet access), Home Theatre, video gaming console, DVD player, STB, DVCR, Home Stereo, TiVo –Interconnectivity between devices (Tomoguchis, Gameboys, etc.) –Home security, home automation or HVAC systems (sensors, control units) –Illumination control (light switches, spot light control) –Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) control of: multimedia presentations conference rooms training rooms automation or control functions –Industry applications for control and surveillance –Healthcare industry for monitoring and wearable sensors, patient monitoring

57 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Source: Walter Hirt, Dennis L. Moeller, "The Global View of a Wireless System Integrator," International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies (ISART), Boulder, CO, USA, 4-6 March 2002

58 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. 4G POTENTIAL FOR UWB 3G and beyond

59 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. ▲ Hot-spot Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Intelligent Wireless Area Network (IWAN) ► Sensor, Positioning, and Identification Network (SPIN) ▼ Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) ▼ Outdoor Peer-to-Peer Networking (OPPN) ◄ Potential Application Scenarios

60 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. UWB Consumer Applications Home Entertainment Mobile Devices Computing Automotive Freescale Semi.

61 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Entertainment Applications Connect between sources and displays  Drivers are wire elimination for install and freedom of component placement Requirements  Bandwidth  Each MPEG2 HD Stream Mbps  Two full rate streams required for PIP  Handheld can be used for PIP viewing or channel surfing (SD stream)  Range  Media center to display or handheld  Anywhere in the room (<10m)  QoS with low latency  Channel change, typing, gamers Available Now: both SD and HD

62 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Content Transfer: Mobile Devices Applications  Smartphone/PDA, MP3, DSC  Media Player, Storage, display Requirements  Mobile device storage sizes  Flash 5, 32, 512, 2048 … MB  HD 4, …, 60+ GB  Range is near device (< 2m)  User requires xfer time < 10s Print from handheld Images from camera to storage/network MP3 titles to music player MPEG4 movie (512 MB) to player Mount portable HD Exchange your music & data Low Power Use Cases Low Power & High Data Rate Use

63 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. Content Streaming Applications  Digital video camcorder (DVC)  Smartphone/PDS, Media player Requirements  Range is in view of display (< 5m)  DV Format 30 Mbps with QoS  MPEG 2 at 12-20Mbps  Power budget < 500 mW Stream DV or MPEG DS-UWB is just a shift register Stream presentation from Smartphone/PDA to projector Channel surf and PIP to handheld Use Cases

64 Wireless Access Tech. Lab. CCU Wireless Access Tech. Lab. References [1] K. Siwiak and D. McKeown, Ultra-Wideband Radio Technology, Wiley: UK, [2] Mohammad Ghavami, Lachlan Michael, Ryuji Kohno. Ultra-Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, [3]M.-G. Di Benedetto and G. Giancola, Understanding Ultra Wide Band radio Fundamentals, Prentice Hall, Ian Oppermann. UWB: Theory and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., [4] Xiaomin Chen and Sayfe Kiaei, "Monocycle Shapes for Ultra Wideband System,“ IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 1, pp , May 2002.


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