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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic made up of fifty states, one federal district, and several.

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1 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

2 The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic made up of fifty states, one federal district, and several territories. The country is situated largely in the western hemisphere: its forty-eight contiguous states and the District of Columbia (coextensive with Washington, the capital) lie in central North America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south; the state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent with Canada to its east, and the state of Hawaii is in the mid-Pacific. U.S. territories, or insular areas, are scattered around the Caribbean and Pacific. At over 3.7 million square miles (over 9.6 million km²) and with more than 300 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and third largest by land area and population. A liberal democracy, the U.S. is one of the world's most ethnically and socially diverse nations. American society is the product of large-scale immigration and is home to a complex social structure. Its national economy is the world's largest, with a nominal 2005 gross domestic product (GDP) of more than $13 trillion. The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic made up of fifty states, one federal district, and several territories. The country is situated largely in the western hemisphere: its forty-eight contiguous states and the District of Columbia (coextensive with Washington, the capital) lie in central North America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south; the state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent with Canada to its east, and the state of Hawaii is in the mid-Pacific. U.S. territories, or insular areas, are scattered around the Caribbean and Pacific. At over 3.7 million square miles (over 9.6 million km²) and with more than 300 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and third largest by land area and population. A liberal democracy, the U.S. is one of the world's most ethnically and socially diverse nations. American society is the product of large-scale immigration and is home to a complex social structure. Its national economy is the world's largest, with a nominal 2005 gross domestic product (GDP) of more than $13 trillion. The nation was founded by thirteen colonies of Great Britain located along the Atlantic seaboard. Proclaiming themselves "states," they issued the Declaration of Independence on July 4, Britain, defeated in the American Revolutionary War, recognized their sovereignty in A federal convention adopted the current United States Constitution on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic. Ten constitutional amendments composing the Bill of Rights were ratified in The country greatly expanded throughout the nineteenth century, acquiring territory from France, Spain, Mexico, and Russia, while annexing the Republic of Texas and the former Kingdom of Hawaii. The American Civil War of the 1860s ended the slavery of millions of descendants of kidnapped Africans. By the turn of the twentieth century, the United States was a great power. With its development of nuclear weapons, the U.S. emerged from World War II as one of two global superpowers, along with the Soviet Union. The Soviet collapse in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. It remains a dominant economic, political, military, and cultural force in the Western world and around the globe. The nation was founded by thirteen colonies of Great Britain located along the Atlantic seaboard. Proclaiming themselves "states," they issued the Declaration of Independence on July 4, Britain, defeated in the American Revolutionary War, recognized their sovereignty in A federal convention adopted the current United States Constitution on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic. Ten constitutional amendments composing the Bill of Rights were ratified in The country greatly expanded throughout the nineteenth century, acquiring territory from France, Spain, Mexico, and Russia, while annexing the Republic of Texas and the former Kingdom of Hawaii. The American Civil War of the 1860s ended the slavery of millions of descendants of kidnapped Africans. By the turn of the twentieth century, the United States was a great power. With its development of nuclear weapons, the U.S. emerged from World War II as one of two global superpowers, along with the Soviet Union. The Soviet collapse in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. It remains a dominant economic, political, military, and cultural force in the Western world and around the globe.

3 History Native Americans and European settlers The indigenous peoples of the North American territory that now constitutes the United States mainland, including Alaska, migrated from Asia. Primarily traversing the Bering land bridge, they came over a period that began as many as 35,000 years ago and ended approximately 11,000 years ago. Several indigenous communities in the pre- Columbian era developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state- level societies. European explorer Christopher Columbus arrived at Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493, making first contact with the Native Americans. In the years that followed, the majority of the Native American population was killed by epidemics of Eurasian diseases. The indigenous peoples of the North American territory that now constitutes the United States mainland, including Alaska, migrated from Asia. Primarily traversing the Bering land bridge, they came over a period that began as many as 35,000 years ago and ended approximately 11,000 years ago. Several indigenous communities in the pre- Columbian era developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state- level societies. European explorer Christopher Columbus arrived at Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493, making first contact with the Native Americans. In the years that followed, the majority of the Native American population was killed by epidemics of Eurasian diseases. The Mayflower The Mayflower

4 Florida was home to the earliest European colonies on the mainland; of these only St. Augustine, founded in 1565, remains. French fur traders set up small outposts called New France near the Great Lakes. Later Spanish settlements in the Southwestern United States drew thousands through Mexico. The first successful British settlements were the Virginia Colony at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and the 1620 Pilgrims settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts. Between 1614, the Netherlands settled parts of New York and New Jersey, including New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. Sweden settled New Sweden (in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania), which then passed to the Dutch. Several colonies were used by the British as penal settlements from the 1620s until the American Revolution. Florida was home to the earliest European colonies on the mainland; of these only St. Augustine, founded in 1565, remains. French fur traders set up small outposts called New France near the Great Lakes. Later Spanish settlements in the Southwestern United States drew thousands through Mexico. The first successful British settlements were the Virginia Colony at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and the 1620 Pilgrims settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts. Between 1614, the Netherlands settled parts of New York and New Jersey, including New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. Sweden settled New Sweden (in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania), which then passed to the Dutch. Several colonies were used by the British as penal settlements from the 1620s until the American Revolution.

5 Independence and expansion Tensions between American colonials and the British during the revolutionary period of the 1760s and 1770s led to open warfare from 1775 through George Washington commanded the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War as the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, The Congress created the Continental Army, but was handicapped in its ability to fund it by lack of authority to levy taxes; instead, it over- printed paper money triggering hyperinflation. During the conflict, some seventy thousand loyalists to the British Crown fled the new nation, with some fifty thousand United Empire Loyalist refugees fleeing to Nova Scotia and the new British holdings in Canada. Native American loyalties were likewise divided; Cherokees and several other peoples split into factions fighting on both sides on the western front. Tensions between American colonials and the British during the revolutionary period of the 1760s and 1770s led to open warfare from 1775 through George Washington commanded the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War as the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, The Congress created the Continental Army, but was handicapped in its ability to fund it by lack of authority to levy taxes; instead, it over- printed paper money triggering hyperinflation. During the conflict, some seventy thousand loyalists to the British Crown fled the new nation, with some fifty thousand United Empire Loyalist refugees fleeing to Nova Scotia and the new British holdings in Canada. Native American loyalties were likewise divided; Cherokees and several other peoples split into factions fighting on both sides on the western front.

6 In 1777, the Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, uniting the states under a weak federal government, which operated until After the defeat of Great Britain, dissatisfaction with the weak national government led to a constitutional convention in By June 1788, enough states had ratified the United States Constitution to establish the new government, which took office in The Constitution, which strengthened the union and the federal government, is still the supreme law of the land. Attitudes towards slavery shifted in this time, leading to a clause in the Constitution ending the African slave trade. All Northern states abolished slavery between 1780 and 1804, differentiating themselves from the remaining slave states. Fighting with the Chickamauga loyalist faction of the Cherokees began a cycle of Indian Wars with the fledgling U.S. government that stretched to the end of the next century. In 1777, the Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, uniting the states under a weak federal government, which operated until After the defeat of Great Britain, dissatisfaction with the weak national government led to a constitutional convention in By June 1788, enough states had ratified the United States Constitution to establish the new government, which took office in The Constitution, which strengthened the union and the federal government, is still the supreme law of the land. Attitudes towards slavery shifted in this time, leading to a clause in the Constitution ending the African slave trade. All Northern states abolished slavery between 1780 and 1804, differentiating themselves from the remaining slave states. Fighting with the Chickamauga loyalist faction of the Cherokees began a cycle of Indian Wars with the fledgling U.S. government that stretched to the end of the next century. From 1803 to 1848, the size of the new nation nearly tripled as settlers (many embracing the concept of Manifest Destiny as an inevitable consequence of American exceptionalism) pushed beyond national boundaries even before the Louisiana Purchase. The expansion was tempered somewhat by the stalemate in the War of 1812, but it was subsequently reinvigorated by victory in the Mexican- American War in 1848, and the prospect of gold during the California Gold Rush ( ). From 1803 to 1848, the size of the new nation nearly tripled as settlers (many embracing the concept of Manifest Destiny as an inevitable consequence of American exceptionalism) pushed beyond national boundaries even before the Louisiana Purchase. The expansion was tempered somewhat by the stalemate in the War of 1812, but it was subsequently reinvigorated by victory in the Mexican- American War in 1848, and the prospect of gold during the California Gold Rush ( ). Between 1830–1880, up to 40 million American Bison, commonly called Buffalo, were slaughtered for skins and meat, and to aid railway expansion. The expansion of the railways reduced transit times for both goods and people, made westward expansion less arduous for the pioneers, and increased conflicts with the Native Americans regarding the land and its uses. The loss of the bison, a primary resource for the plains Indians, added to the pressures on native cultures and individuals for survival Between 1830–1880, up to 40 million American Bison, commonly called Buffalo, were slaughtered for skins and meat, and to aid railway expansion. The expansion of the railways reduced transit times for both goods and people, made westward expansion less arduous for the pioneers, and increased conflicts with the Native Americans regarding the land and its uses. The loss of the bison, a primary resource for the plains Indians, added to the pressures on native cultures and individuals for survival

7 Civil War and Reconstruction As new territories were being incorporated, the nation was divided on the issue of states' rights, the role of the federal government, and the expansion of slavery, which had been legal in all thirteen colonies but was rarer in the north, where it was abolished by The Northern states were opposed to the expansion of slavery whereas the Southern states saw the opposition as an attack on their way of life, since their economy was dependent on slave labor. The failure to resolve these issues led to the American Civil War, following the secession of many slave states in the South to form the Confederate States of America after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln. The 1865 Union victory in the Civil War effectively ended slavery and settled the question of whether a state had the right to secede. The event was a major turning point in American history and resulted in an increase in federal power. As new territories were being incorporated, the nation was divided on the issue of states' rights, the role of the federal government, and the expansion of slavery, which had been legal in all thirteen colonies but was rarer in the north, where it was abolished by The Northern states were opposed to the expansion of slavery whereas the Southern states saw the opposition as an attack on their way of life, since their economy was dependent on slave labor. The failure to resolve these issues led to the American Civil War, following the secession of many slave states in the South to form the Confederate States of America after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln. The 1865 Union victory in the Civil War effectively ended slavery and settled the question of whether a state had the right to secede. The event was a major turning point in American history and resulted in an increase in federal power.

8 The end of the war was marked by the Abraham Lincoln assassination and Radical Republican attempts to assimilate the South. Their Reconstruction policies ended in the late 1870s as Jim Crow laws began to disenfranchise the newly freed slaves. In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants hastened the country's industrialization. Immigrants helped to provide labor for American industry and create diverse communities in undeveloped areas while high tariff protections, national infrastructure building and national banking regulations encouraged industrial growth. The growing power of the United States enabled it to acquire new territories, including the annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines after victory in the Spanish-American War, which marked the debut of the United States as a major world power. The end of the war was marked by the Abraham Lincoln assassination and Radical Republican attempts to assimilate the South. Their Reconstruction policies ended in the late 1870s as Jim Crow laws began to disenfranchise the newly freed slaves. In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants hastened the country's industrialization. Immigrants helped to provide labor for American industry and create diverse communities in undeveloped areas while high tariff protections, national infrastructure building and national banking regulations encouraged industrial growth. The growing power of the United States enabled it to acquire new territories, including the annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines after victory in the Spanish-American War, which marked the debut of the United States as a major world power. Abraham Lincoln

9 World Wars and The Great Depression At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the United States remained neutral. American sympathies favored the British and French, although many citizens, mostly Irish and German, were opposed to intervention. In 1917, however, the United States joined the Triple Entente, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. After the war, the Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles because of a fear that it would pull the United States into European affairs. Instead, the country continued to pursue its policy of unilateralism that bordered at times on isolationism. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the United States remained neutral. American sympathies favored the British and French, although many citizens, mostly Irish and German, were opposed to intervention. In 1917, however, the United States joined the Triple Entente, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. After the war, the Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles because of a fear that it would pull the United States into European affairs. Instead, the country continued to pursue its policy of unilateralism that bordered at times on isolationism. During most of the 1920s, the United States enjoyed a period of unbalanced prosperity as farm profits fell while industrial profits grew. A rise in debt and an inflated stock market culmination in a crash in 1929, combined with the Dust Bowl, triggered the Great Depression. After his election as President in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt launched his New Deal policies increasing government intervention in the economy in response to the Great Depression. The nation would not fully recover from the economic depression until its industrial mobilization related to entering World War II. During most of the 1920s, the United States enjoyed a period of unbalanced prosperity as farm profits fell while industrial profits grew. A rise in debt and an inflated stock market culmination in a crash in 1929, combined with the Dust Bowl, triggered the Great Depression. After his election as President in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt launched his New Deal policies increasing government intervention in the economy in response to the Great Depression. The nation would not fully recover from the economic depression until its industrial mobilization related to entering World War II.

10 On December 7, 1941 the United States was driven to join the Allies against the Axis Powers after a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan. World War II had a greater economic cost than any in American history, but it helped to pull the economy out of depression by providing much-needed jobs and putting many women to work for the first time. After achieving victory in Europe, the United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 to avoid a dangerous land-invasion. The Surrender of Japan followed on September 2, 1945, ending the war. On December 7, 1941 the United States was driven to join the Allies against the Axis Powers after a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan. World War II had a greater economic cost than any in American history, but it helped to pull the economy out of depression by providing much-needed jobs and putting many women to work for the first time. After achieving victory in Europe, the United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 to avoid a dangerous land-invasion. The Surrender of Japan followed on September 2, 1945, ending the war.

11 Language and religion Language Although the United States has no official language at the federal level, English is the de facto national language. In 2003, about 215 million, or 82 percent of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by over 10% of the population at home, is the only other language used at home by more than 1% of the population. Knowledge of English is required of immigrants seeking naturalization. Spanish is the second most spoken language and the most widely taught foreign language Some Americans advocate making English the official language, which is the law in twenty-five states. Hawaiian is granted official status in Hawaii by the Constitution of Hawaii Several insular territories also grant official recognition to their native languages: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands, and Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico. In the states of New Mexico and Louisiana there is no official language. However, New Mexico issues government documents in both Spanish and English, and Louisiana legally recognizes the French language. Although the United States has no official language at the federal level, English is the de facto national language. In 2003, about 215 million, or 82 percent of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by over 10% of the population at home, is the only other language used at home by more than 1% of the population. Knowledge of English is required of immigrants seeking naturalization. Spanish is the second most spoken language and the most widely taught foreign language Some Americans advocate making English the official language, which is the law in twenty-five states. Hawaiian is granted official status in Hawaii by the Constitution of Hawaii Several insular territories also grant official recognition to their native languages: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands, and Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico. In the states of New Mexico and Louisiana there is no official language. However, New Mexico issues government documents in both Spanish and English, and Louisiana legally recognizes the French language.

12 Religion The United States government keeps no official register of Americans' religious status. However, in a private survey conducted in 2001 and mentioned in the Census Bureau's Statistical Abstract of the United States, 76.7 percent of American adults identified themselves as Christian; about 52 percent of adults described themselves as members of various Protestant denominations. Roman Catholics, at 24.5 percent, were the most populous individual denomination. Other faiths in America include Judaism (1.4 percent), Islam (0.5 percent), Buddhism (0.5 percent), Hinduism (0.4 percent) and Unitarian Universalism (0.3 percent). About 14.2 percent of respondents described themselves as having no religion. Although the total U.S. population grew by 18.5 percent between 1990 and 2001, 13 religious groups declined in absolute numbers, while 20 groups more than doubled in number. The United States government keeps no official register of Americans' religious status. However, in a private survey conducted in 2001 and mentioned in the Census Bureau's Statistical Abstract of the United States, 76.7 percent of American adults identified themselves as Christian; about 52 percent of adults described themselves as members of various Protestant denominations. Roman Catholics, at 24.5 percent, were the most populous individual denomination. Other faiths in America include Judaism (1.4 percent), Islam (0.5 percent), Buddhism (0.5 percent), Hinduism (0.4 percent) and Unitarian Universalism (0.3 percent). About 14.2 percent of respondents described themselves as having no religion. Although the total U.S. population grew by 18.5 percent between 1990 and 2001, 13 religious groups declined in absolute numbers, while 20 groups more than doubled in number.

13 Culture The United States is a culturally diverse nation, home to a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. The culture held in common by the majority of Americans is referred to as "mainstream American culture," a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Western European migrants, beginning with the early English and Dutch settlers. German, Scottish, and Irish cultures have also been very influential. Certain Native American traditions and many cultural characteristics of enslaved West Africans were absorbed into the American mainstream. Westward expansion brought close contact with the culture of Mexico, and large-scale immigration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced many new cultural elements. More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has had broad impact. The resulting mix of cultures may be characterized as a homogeneous melting pot or as a pluralistic salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics. The United States is a culturally diverse nation, home to a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. The culture held in common by the majority of Americans is referred to as "mainstream American culture," a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Western European migrants, beginning with the early English and Dutch settlers. German, Scottish, and Irish cultures have also been very influential. Certain Native American traditions and many cultural characteristics of enslaved West Africans were absorbed into the American mainstream. Westward expansion brought close contact with the culture of Mexico, and large-scale immigration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced many new cultural elements. More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has had broad impact. The resulting mix of cultures may be characterized as a homogeneous melting pot or as a pluralistic salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.

14 While American culture maintains the myth that the U.S. is a classless society, economists and sociologists have identified cultural differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values. The American middle and professional class has been the source of many contemporary social trends such as feminism, environmentalism, and multiculturalism. Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree. While Americans tend to greatly value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute. Women, formerly limited to domestic roles, now mostly work outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees. The changing role of women has also changed the American family. In 2005, no household arrangement defined more than 30 percent of households; married childless couples were most common, at 28 percent. The extension of marital rights to homosexual persons is an issue of debate, with more liberal states permitting civil unions and Massachusetts recently having legalized same- sex marriage While American culture maintains the myth that the U.S. is a classless society, economists and sociologists have identified cultural differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values. The American middle and professional class has been the source of many contemporary social trends such as feminism, environmentalism, and multiculturalism. Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree. While Americans tend to greatly value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute. Women, formerly limited to domestic roles, now mostly work outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees. The changing role of women has also changed the American family. In 2005, no household arrangement defined more than 30 percent of households; married childless couples were most common, at 28 percent. The extension of marital rights to homosexual persons is an issue of debate, with more liberal states permitting civil unions and Massachusetts recently having legalized same- sex marriage

15 Literature and the arts In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the nineteenth century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, would be recognized as America's other essential poet. Later American writers have been much honored: U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature eleven times, most recently Toni Morrison in Ernest Hemingway, the 1954 Nobel laureate, is often named as one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century. The "great American novel" is a label sometimes given to a celebrated book regarded as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character. The term has been used to describe such works as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), and F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925). Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the nineteenth century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, would be recognized as America's other essential poet. Later American writers have been much honored: U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature eleven times, most recently Toni Morrison in Ernest Hemingway, the 1954 Nobel laureate, is often named as one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century. The "great American novel" is a label sometimes given to a celebrated book regarded as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character. The term has been used to describe such works as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), and F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925). Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. Ernest Hemingway

16 The other classical arts did not establish distinctive American expressions until the twentieth century, though the Hudson River School was an important visual art movement in the mid-nineteenth century. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. visual art scene. American painters and sculptors, like their European counterparts, began experimenting with new styles and displaying a more individualistic sensibility. Georgia O'Keefe and Marsden Hartley were among the first leading artists to demonstrate this development. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollack and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then post-modernism also brought American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry to the top of their field. Though largely overlooked at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition; other experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created an identifiably American approach to classical composition. Choreographers George Balanchine, Jerome Robbins, and Martha Graham were among the leading figures of twentieth- century dance. The U.S. has long been at the fore in the relatively modern artistic medium of photography, with major practitioners such as Alfred Steiglitz, Edward Steichen, Ansel Adams, and many others. The other classical arts did not establish distinctive American expressions until the twentieth century, though the Hudson River School was an important visual art movement in the mid-nineteenth century. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. visual art scene. American painters and sculptors, like their European counterparts, began experimenting with new styles and displaying a more individualistic sensibility. Georgia O'Keefe and Marsden Hartley were among the first leading artists to demonstrate this development. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollack and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then post-modernism also brought American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry to the top of their field. Though largely overlooked at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition; other experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created an identifiably American approach to classical composition. Choreographers George Balanchine, Jerome Robbins, and Martha Graham were among the leading figures of twentieth- century dance. The U.S. has long been at the fore in the relatively modern artistic medium of photography, with major practitioners such as Alfred Steiglitz, Edward Steichen, Ansel Adams, and many others. Knives by Andy Warhol

17 Popular media Popular media In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City, using the Kinetoscope commissioned by Thomas Edison. The first commercial screening of a projected film came the following year, also in New York, and the U.S. was in the forefront of the development of sound film in the following decades. Since the early twentieth century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, California. The major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Star Wars (1977) and Titanic (1997). American screen actors like John Wayne and Clint Eastwood have become iconic figures, while producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising. Director Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time. The products of American cinema and other mass media now appear in nearly every nation In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City, using the Kinetoscope commissioned by Thomas Edison. The first commercial screening of a projected film came the following year, also in New York, and the U.S. was in the forefront of the development of sound film in the following decades. Since the early twentieth century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, California. The major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Star Wars (1977) and Titanic (1997). American screen actors like John Wayne and Clint Eastwood have become iconic figures, while producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising. Director Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time. The products of American cinema and other mass media now appear in nearly every nation

18 Americans are the heaviest television viewers in the world, averaging twenty-eight hours a week in front of their screens!!!

19 CapitalWASHINGTON Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. "D.C." is an abbreviation for the District of Columbia, the federal district coextensive with the city of Washington. The city is named after George Washington, military leader of the American Revolution and the first President of the United States. Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. "D.C." is an abbreviation for the District of Columbia, the federal district coextensive with the city of Washington. The city is named after George Washington, military leader of the American Revolution and the first President of the United States. The city is commonly referred to as D.C., the District, or simply Washington. Historically, it was called the Federal City or Washington City. To avoid confusion with the state of Washington, located in the Pacific Northwest, the city is often called simply D.C.. To locals, the entire metropolitan area, including suburbs, is "Washington," while the city proper is "D.C. The city is commonly referred to as D.C., the District, or simply Washington. Historically, it was called the Federal City or Washington City. To avoid confusion with the state of Washington, located in the Pacific Northwest, the city is often called simply D.C.. To locals, the entire metropolitan area, including suburbs, is "Washington," while the city proper is "D.C.

20 The centers of all three branches of the U.S. federal government are in the District. It also serves as the headquarters for the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, the Inter- American Development Bank, and other national and international institutions. Washington is the frequent location of large political demonstrations and protests, particularly on the National Mall. Furthermore, Washington is a popular destination for tourists, the site of numerous national landmarks and monuments. It is a major American cultural center, with a number of important museums, galleries, performing arts centers and institutions, and native music scenes. The centers of all three branches of the U.S. federal government are in the District. It also serves as the headquarters for the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, the Inter- American Development Bank, and other national and international institutions. Washington is the frequent location of large political demonstrations and protests, particularly on the National Mall. Furthermore, Washington is a popular destination for tourists, the site of numerous national landmarks and monuments. It is a major American cultural center, with a number of important museums, galleries, performing arts centers and institutions, and native music scenes. The District of Columbia and the city of Washington are governed by a single municipal government, and for most practical purposes, are considered to be the same entity. This has not always been the case. Until 1871, when Georgetown ceased to be a separate city, there were multiple jurisdictions within the District.[Although there is a municipal government and a mayor, Congress has the supreme authority over the city and district, which results in citizens having less self- governance than residents of the states. In addition to lacking full self-governance, the residents of the District also lack voting representation in Congress, despite being required to pay federal income tax. The District of Columbia and the city of Washington are governed by a single municipal government, and for most practical purposes, are considered to be the same entity. This has not always been the case. Until 1871, when Georgetown ceased to be a separate city, there were multiple jurisdictions within the District.[Although there is a municipal government and a mayor, Congress has the supreme authority over the city and district, which results in citizens having less self- governance than residents of the states. In addition to lacking full self-governance, the residents of the District also lack voting representation in Congress, despite being required to pay federal income tax.

21 The Star-Spangled Banner Oh, say can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected now shines on the stream: 'Tis the star-spangled banner! O long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion A home and a country should leave us no more? Their blood has wiped out their foul footstep's pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave: And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand Between their loved homes and the war's desolation! Blest with victory and peace, may the heaven-rescued land Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto: "In God is our trust." And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave

22 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Joanna Kamińska


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